Universal Health Care in Other Nations <ul><li>Bukola J. Ishola </li></ul>“ Everybody has a right to health care”. Pascal Couchepin Swiss President
In this presentation I will: <ul><li>Talk about universal health care in other developed nations </li></ul><ul><li>Define their system types </li></ul><ul><li>Talk about how their system works </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss interesting concerns about their system </li></ul><ul><li>Compare the U.S. to Switzerland </li></ul><ul><li>Pros and Cons about the U.S. Health Care reform, after learning more about other countries. </li></ul>
“ Head of State” (2003) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fXLby6zDVG8
Aspects of Universal Health Care in the U.S. <ul><li>affordable </li></ul><ul><li>cannot exclude those with pre-existing conditions </li></ul><ul><li>women cannot be charged higher rates </li></ul><ul><li>dependent coverage for adult children until age 26 </li></ul>http://www.cnn.com/2010/HEALTH/03/25/health.care.law.basics/index.html
Capitalist Countries Across the Globe that Have Health Care for Everyone <ul><li>United Kingdom (1948) </li></ul><ul><li>Japan (1938) </li></ul><ul><li>Germany (1941) </li></ul><ul><li>Taiwan (1995) </li></ul><ul><li>Switzerland (1994) </li></ul>
The United Kingdom <ul><li>Percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) spent on health care: 8.3 </li></ul><ul><li>Average family premium: None; funded by taxation. </li></ul><ul><li>Co-payments: None for most services; some co-pays for dental care, eyeglasses and 5 percent of prescriptions. Young people and the elderly are exempt from all drug co-pays. </li></ul>
Japan <ul><li>Percentage of GDP spent on health care: 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Average family premium: $280 per month, with employers paying more than half. </li></ul><ul><li>Co-payments: 30 percent of the cost of a procedure, but the total amount paid in a month is capped according to income. </li></ul>
Germany <ul><li>Percentage of GDP spent on health care: 10.7 </li></ul><ul><li>Average family premium: $750 per month; premiums are pegged to patients' income. </li></ul><ul><li>Co-payments: 10 euros ($15) every three months; some patients, like pregnant women, are exempt. </li></ul>
Taiwan <ul><li>Percentage GDP spent on health care: 6.3 </li></ul><ul><li>Average family premium: $650 per year for a family of four. </li></ul><ul><li>Co-payments: 20 percent of the cost of drugs, up to $6.50; up to $7 for outpatient care; $1.80 for dental and traditional Chinese medicine. There are exemptions for major diseases, childbirth, preventive services, and for the poor, veterans, and children. </li></ul>
Switzerland <ul><li>Percentage of GDP spent on health care: 11.6 </li></ul><ul><li>Average monthly family premium: $750, paid entirely by consumers; there are government subsidies for low-income citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>Co-payments: 10 percent of the cost of services, up to $420 per year. </li></ul>
There are 3 system types under universal health care: (1) single payer, (2) two-tier, and (3) insurance mandate Single Payer: “The government provides insurance for all residents (or citizens) and pays all health care expenses except for copays and coinsurance. Providers may be public, private, or a combination of both” Insurance Mandate: “The government mandates that all citizens purchase insurance, whether from private, public, or non-profit insurers. In some cases the insurer list is quite restrictive, while in others a healthy private market for insurance is simply regulated and standardized by the government. In this kind of system insurers are barred from rejecting sick individuals, and individuals are required to purchase insurance, in order to prevent typical health care market failures from arising.” http://truecostblog.com/2009/08/09/countries-with-universal-healthcare-by-date/ United Kingdom Japan Germany Taiwan Switzerland United States System Type Single Payer Single Payer Insurance Mandate Single Payer Insurance Mandate Insurance Mandate
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/sickaroundtheworld/countries/ United Kingdom Japan Germany Taiwan Switzerland How it works? The system is funded through taxes, administrative costs are low; there are no bills to collect or claims to review Unlike the U.K., there are no gatekeepers; they can go to any specialist that they would like to, whenever they want to. Sickness funds are nonprofit and cannot deny coverage based on preexisting conditions. The sickness funds bargain with doctors as a group The Taiwanese can see any doctor without a referral. Every citizen has a smart card, which is used to store his or her medical history and bill the national insurer. Insurance companies are not allowed to make a profit on basic care and are prohibited from cherry-picking only young and healthy applicants Questions, Comments & Concerns The stereotype of socialized medicine -- long waits and limited choice -- still has some truth. In response, the British government has instituted reforms to help make care more competitive and give patients more choice Japan has been so successful at keeping costs down that Japan now spends too little on health care; half of the hospitals in Japan are operating in the red The single-payment system leaves some German doctors feeling underpaid. Germany also lets the richest 10 percent opt out of the sickness funds in favor of U.S.-style for-profit insurance. Taiwan's system is not taking in enough money to cover the medical care it provides. It is related to politics because Taiwan's parliament must approve an increase in insurance premiums The Swiss system is the second most expensive in the world. Drug prices are still slightly higher than in other European nations
...a comparison of Switzerland and the United States...
Interview with Swiss President Pascal Couchepin <ul><li>He overseas the implementation of the law LAMal (1994). </li></ul><ul><li>Prior to the law, Switzerland’s health care system was similar to the United States before the health care reform. </li></ul><ul><li>The law basically states that the everyone must purchase health insurance, and that the country pays for the poor. </li></ul><ul><li>This law gives medical care for all. </li></ul>
Being that the U.S. modeled Switzerland’s system of health care, is it a good idea? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7VWANhILPEU
With what we know about the new health care reform in the U.S., and our crash course on Switzerland’s health care, what are the pros and cons of the United State’s universal health care?
U.S. Universal Health Care <ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><li>Recognized as a human right </li></ul><ul><li>Choose your own doctor and insurance </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient and Neutral </li></ul><ul><li>Preventative health care </li></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive for the gov’t </li></ul><ul><li>“Patients have too much choice” </li></ul><ul><li>Size of the program </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of socialized medicine </li></ul><ul><li>single interest groups </li></ul>
Regardless, not everyone is going to be happy...universal coverage, no coverage, single payer, insurance mandate, etc. There are, “Huge wave of protests, and in November starts a huge wave of protests against limitation of services in the health service. And during the next 11 months, every[one] protests and say[s], "We want the new vaccines; we want improvement of that; we want these new drugs." And one month in the year, they protest against the consequences of the rest of the year.” Pascal Couchepin Swiss President In response to the question: “Here's what you're going to pay next year"?