Key media theory

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Key media theory

  1. 1. Key Media Concepts       Media Language Representation Genre Audience Narrative These should underpin all aspects of your practical work and will be a fundamental requirement of the exam.
  2. 2. Genre  Barry Keith Grant (1995) suggests that genre allows audiences to identify texts specifically by their familiar and recognisable characteristics.
  3. 3. Genre  Jason Mittell (2001) argues that industries use genre to sell products to audiences.
  4. 4. Genre  Denis McQuail – uses and gratifications  Information – Learning, satisfying curiosity  Personal Identity – gaining insight to ones self, reinforcement of personal values.  Integration and Social Interaction – Identifying with others, sense of belonging  Entertainment – escapism, relaxing, filling time
  5. 5. Genre   Genres are not fixed. They constantly change and evolve over time. David Buckingham (1993) argues that 'genre is not... Simply "given" by the culture: rather, it is in a constant process of negotiation and change’.
  6. 6. Media Language  the language of film and television is defined by how camera, editing, sound and mise-en-scene create meaning
  7. 7. Codes and conventions in Music Videos Carol Vernallis (2001)      Vernalis’ theory centres around 4 key concepts that all relate to the way the music video is constructed (how it creates meaning). They are: 1. Narrative 2. Editing 3. Camera Movement and framing 4. Diegesis
  8. 8. Carol Vernallis  Editing Jump cuts Juxtaposed shots Breaking 180 degree rule  Narrative Disjointed/fragmented narrative May not be clear resolution Video may pose question it doesn’t answer Full information on Carol Vernallis is on G325 blog
  9. 9. Carol Vernallis  Camera movement and framing ○ Camera moves in time with the music ○ Close ups and master shots often used  Diegesis (the world of the music video) ○ Diegesis revealed slowly ○ Character or objects move in time with the music ○ Some frames more important than others ○ There may be gaps in the audience’s understanding of the diegesis – in time and space,music, performance and narrative
  10. 10. Andrew Goodwin Thought Beats Narrative and Performance (repeatability) Star Image (also Dyer) Relation of visuals to a song (illustration, amplification, disjuncture) Technical aspects (camera, editing, effects etc)
  11. 11. Andrew Goodwin’s Theory    - Record companies will demand a lot of close-ups of the main artist or vocalist - Voyeurism is present in many music videos, especially in the treatment of females, but also in terms of systems of looking. Some examples are screens within screens, cameras, mirrors, etc. - there are likely to be intertextual references, either to other music videos or to films and TV texts, these provide further gratification and pleasure for the viewers/fans.
  12. 12.  Media Language/Genre/Representa tion Laura Mulvey – Gaze Theory “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema”  In film, the male gaze occurs when the audience is put into the perspective of a heterosexual man. A scene may linger on the curves of a woman's body, forinstance.  Feminists would argue that such instances are presented in the contextclosest relating to that of a male, hence its referral to being the Male Gaze.
  13. 13. Media Language   When analysing media language you must also consider the technical aspects and how these are used to create meaning: Editing, camera, mise en scene
  14. 14. Representation    Stuart Hall (1980) How the media shows us things about society – but this is through careful mediation. Hence re-presentation. For representation to be meaningful to audiences there needs to be a shared recognition of people, situations, ideas etc.
  15. 15. Representation   Stereotypes/race/age/gender/sexuality David Gauntlett (2007) argues that “Identity is complicated. Everybody thinks they’ve got one. Artists play with the idea of identity in modern society.”
  16. 16. James Baker (2007)     1. Selection: Whatever ends up on the screen or in the paper, much more will have been left out. 2. Organisation: The various elements will be organised carefully in ways that real life is not 3. Focusing: mediation always ends up with us, the audience being encouraged towards concentrating on one aspect of the text and ignoring others. As a producer of a media text you are responsible for how you construct representation.

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