What is intelligence?
"Intelligence, as a hypothetical construct, is the
aggregate or global capacity of the individual
to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to
deal effectively with his environment”
What is Emotion
A natural instinctive state of mind deriving from one's
circumstances, mood, or relationships with others. Any
of the particular feelings that characterize such a state of
mind, such as joy, anger, love, hate, horror, etc.
What is Emotional Intelligence?
“EI is the subset of social intelligence that involves the ability
to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions, to
discriminate among them and to use this information to
guide one's thinking and actions"
-- Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer, (1990).
The capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those
of others, for motivating ourselves, and for managing
emotions well in ourselves and in our relationships.
-- Goleman’s (1995)
Models of EI
1) Ability-based models
Salovey and Mayer proposed a model that identified
four different factors of emotional intelligence:
the perception of emotion,
the ability reason using emotions,
the ability to understand emotion and
the ability to manage emotions.
Perceiving Emotions: The first step in understanding emotions is to
accurately perceive them. In many cases, this might involve
understanding nonverbal signals such as body language and facial
Reasoning With Emotions: The next step involves using emotions to
promote thinking and cognitive activity. Emotions help prioritize what
we pay attention and react to; we respond emotionally to things that
garner our attention.
Understanding Emotions: The emotions that we perceive can carry a
wide variety of meanings. If someone is expressing angry emotions, the
observer must interpret the cause of their anger and what it might mean.
For example, if your boss is acting angry, it might mean that he is
dissatisfied with your work; or it could be because he got a speeding
ticket on his way to work that morning or that he's been fighting with
Managing Emotions: The ability to manage emotions effectively is a
key part of emotional intelligence. Regulating emotions, responding
appropriately and responding to the emotions of others are all important
aspect of emotional management.
2) Mixed models
i) Emotional Competencies (Goleman) Model
ii) Reuven Bar-on Model of Emotional-Social
This model focuses on EI as a wide range of competencies and skills that
drive leadership performance. This model outlines 4 main EI constructs:
i) Emotional Competencies (Goleman) Model
ii) Reuven Bar-on Model of Emotional-Social Intelligence (ESI)
Bar-Ondefines emotional intelligence as being concerned with
effectively understanding oneself and others, relating well to people, and
adapting to and coping with the immediate surroundings to be more
successful in dealing with environmental demands.
Bar-On posits that EI develops over time and that it can be improved
through training, programming, and therapy.
Bar-On hypothesizes that those individuals with higher than average EQs
are in general more successful in meeting environmental demands and
He also notes that a deficiency in EI can mean a lack of success and the
existence of emotional problems.
Problems in coping with one's environment are thought, by Bar-On, to
be especially common among those individuals lacking in the subscales
of reality testing, problem solving, stress tolerance, and impulse control.
In general, Bar-On considers emotional intelligence and cognitive
intelligence to contribute equally to a person's general intelligence,
which then offers an indication of one's potential to succeed in life.
3) Trait EI model
Soviet-born British psychologist Konstantin Vasily Petrides ("K. V.
Petrides") proposed a conceptual distinction between the ability
based model and a trait based model of EI and has been
developing the latter over many years in numerous scientific
Trait EI is "a constellation of emotional self-perceptions located at
the lower levels of personality.”
In lay terms, trait EI refers to an individual's self-perceptions of
their emotional abilities.
This definition of EI encompasses behavioral dispositions and self
perceived abilities and is measured by self report, as opposed to
the ability based model which refers to actual abilities, which have
proven highly resistant to scientific measurement.
Trait EI should be investigated within a personality framework.
Managing emotions at Work Place
Employees in an organisaiton can adopt certain
methods for managing their effectively: they are
Control of Emotions
Applying emotional intelligence in
1. Filling organizational positions
2. Work life
3. Credibility of managers
4. Leadership effectiveness
5. Effective communication
6. Handling frustration
7. Stress management
8. Conflict resolution
Emotional intelligence and competencies at work
1) Emotional competency
Tackling emotional upsets
High self esteem
2) Emotional maturity:
adaptability and flexibility
Understanding the threshold
of emotional arousal /
Advantages of emotional intelligence:
Improves communication with others
Better empathy skills
Acting with integrity
Respect from others
Improved career prospects
Manage change more confidently
Disadvantages of emotional intelligence:
Emotional intelligence is too vague
Emotional intelligence cannot be
Validity of Emotional intelligence