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Jurnal Review of


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Jurnal Review of

  1. 1. "SEX MATTERS":DIFFERENCES IN THE PERCEPTIONS OF MALE AND FEMALE LINE LEVEL EMPLOYEES ABOUT THEIR WORK IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY IN JAMAICA Spencer, Andrew J; Bean, Dalea M. GRADE / SCORE : International Journal of Arts & Sciences 4. 9 (2011) ProQuest document ID : 929269436 90 Human Resources Management inCherly Prihatina Hospitality & TourismBatch 51263620003 Prof. Syamsir Abduh
  2. 2. Content Introduction Literature Review Methodology Finding & Discussion Conclusion
  4. 4. …INTRODUCTION High quality personalized With nearly 3 million service is dependent visitors each year, it is no on hospitality staff being surprise that the travel Employment in the professional, skilled, effiient and tourism hospitality industry is and flexible, whileindustry accounts for nearly grounded in service exhibiting friendly and 40% of Jamaicas GDP hospitable characteristics.( (Williams and Spencer, Jayawardena and Crick 2010). Works by Crick (2001b, (2000, p. 116)) 2008) also signify the importance of “peoples attitudes Very little work has explored the perceptions of perceptions and are the platform from which workers in this mostexpectations of both guests we deliver quality service crucial industry. Even fewer have and and interactions with delineated their findings by gender, and the existing works tend to focus employees in Caribbean visitors"(Dunn and Dunn, on resort hotels and less on urban hotels in creating 2002) business hotels. personalized service in the industry This work attempts to fill these major gaps in the literature
  5. 5. LITERATURE REVIEW Motivational factors in the hotel industry are many and varied and include: monetary bonuses or benefits; opportunities for advancement and promotion; opportunities for increased job responsibility; recognition from managers, colleagues, customers, and family; challenging work; feelings of accomplishment; Employee motivation development of self-esteem; good working conditions; good work schedules; job security; and being regarded as a good employee (Chiang et al., 2008; Simonz and Enz, 1995). Employees perceptions of their occupational worth often surround these major indicators
  6. 6. …LITERATURE REVIEW The hospitality industry has perpetuated distinctions in employment according to societys understanding of typical gender roles. Sex and Gender at work The researchers seek to prove that employee perceptions do vary based on their gender.Some researchers note that gender is not an important indicator ofemployee perceptions,(Silva ,2006)Gender was not a major indicator of differences in employeeperceptions when compared to workers age, level in the organizationand the number of years in the position. (Charles and Marshall ,1992) versus Link between gender and perceptionThe interplay of gender and age are crucial to a study of employeeperceptions of their jobs, (Mooney and Ryan ,2009)
  8. 8. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION The data represents Sex was the statistically dominant significant independent relationships variable at the 0.05 level. An understanding of sex There are and gender dynamics is similarities or crucial. disparities in Gender is a key indicator of the perceptions differences in employees of male versus perceptions of their jobs female line level and their overall job satisfaction. hotel workers.
  9. 9. …FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION Types of work•71.4% of women as well as most man were resistant to the notion that some jobsare better suited for them,•both sexes overwhelmingly agreed (90.3%) that female dominated jobs in thehospitality industry bore striking similarities to housework and males in particular(94.1%) felt that there were "female-centric jobs" in hotels. Prospects of working in the industry: •94.1% of males chose the hotel industry as a first choice for work while only 26.2% of females view the industry as a first choice; Careers in the hospitality industry•78% of males said they thought their jobs were lifelong careers ; while 85.7% offemales said they did not thought their jobs were lifelong careers.•the 18-25 year old group tended to feel that they would move on to differentprofessions eventually,•the 26-35 and 36-45 groups were likely to think that they were in it for the longhaul Self Esteem . 92.2% of males felt that their jobs were important compared to 35.7% of females.
  10. 10. …FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION Enjoying the working time and Job Satisfaction•72.3% of males said that their work was enjoyable : for most times (23.5%) or all the time(58.8%).• Negatively, Most females (64.3%) however felt that their work was enjoyable a few times (33.3%)or never (31%).•98% of males ranged from "somewhat satisfied" to "very satisfied" with their jobs,• A relatively large number of females (47.6%) were at least "somewhat satisfied" with their jobs. Interaction with guest and Self perceptionMost men noted that their interaction was professional, good or satisfactory, most women related their experiences with guests as being excellent and fun. Job Reward•whereas females may enjoy guest interaction, they overwhelmingly saw wagesas the best reward for their work. While, 76.5% of males viewed a promotionas the best reward for hard work (which supports them viewing their jobs as lifelongcareers) 64.3% of females valued increased income as the best reward. . Optimism of work 97.3% females at the line level observe that senior management posts tend to be male dominated.
  11. 11. …FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONEmployees internalized the wider societal views on which jobs are better suited for males and females. Female’s jobs were closely linked to emblematic female personality traits, emotional labour or archetypical of female domestic duties Man were mainly involved in what could be considered higher skilledprofessions as bartenders, chefs, cooks and maintenance technicians, which require more specialized training.This explains why overwhelmingly more males than females said that they opted for their jobs in the hotels.The women in manycases, ostensibly stumbled on their jobs and would require very little extra training .This greater sense of job importance that men seem to have over theirfemale counterparts follows from the fact that the men tend to be in higher skilled jobs and invested more in their training for these positions. It is therefore naturalthat they would think their jobs are crucial to the organization and would also see themselves as less dispensable than women would. While the women werecognizant that their jobs were necessary to the smooth running of the hotels, they were also acutely aware that they were replaceable, since scores of similarlymarginally skilled women are in the job market seeking employment opportunities
  12. 12. …FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONConsistent with the previously mentioned about choice to work in the industry and views of whether their jobs could be seen as lifelong careers. Men were more likely than women to perceive their jobs as being desirable and secure It should be noted that even though women in general were not as satisfied with their work, they still tended to enjoy the social interaction with guests. Women thought of themselves as friendly, were interested in listening to guests problems, andvalued learning about the various cultures and countries from which the guests emanated. This answers to Clarks (1997) question "why are women so happy at work?"male hotel workers in the Bahamas ranked higher wages higher than female hotel workers. Women enjoy the interaction with guests, they would not be concerned only with monetary reward for their services; the job would be reward in itself. female tend to be apathetic to the "sticky floor" of hotel work where they at least willearn a living, if nothing else. There is a pressing need for women to address immediate financialobligations and therefore there is less emphasis on climbing the corporate ladder. Man tendency to view the possibility of promotion as on par or even surpassing wages signifies that they perceive themselves as having a great chance for upward mobility.
  13. 13. CONCLUSION There are line clear gender Demands on family life differences in hotel may play a employee role in these perceptions in urban perceptions, business hotels in Jamaica Due to the nature The demands of aof the hospitality work supervisory role place itself, it has and the requirements for identified particular job advancement have challenges for created significant obstacles for hospitality This research however females. professionals who may only be aspire to senior level generalized to the positions. extent that contexts bear similarities to Jamaica
  14. 14. …Conclusion • Females were much more present-time oriented and fatalistic in their approach to hospitality work. General • Female’s perception that male dominated management hierarchy make themattitudes to quickly erodes thoughts of upward mobility. work • Female disinterest in building lifelong careers in the industry • Female were not keen on saying that they were better suited for some jobs, they identified however that they typically occupied certain jobs, which were not rapidly mobile such as front desk clerk and housekeeper/room attendant. • Males in particular revealed that there were male-centric and female-centric jobs in Typically the hotel. job • Male steer clear of what they believe to be female centric-jobs • Male Held food and beverage jobs which provide for the quickest climb up the ladder (Ladkin and Riley, 1996). • Female perceived that working in the hospitality industry as having little opportunityopportunity for advancement and job stability foradvanceme • male perceptions that working in the hospitality industry as having opportunity for nt and job advancement and job stability, many of male seek to build careers in the field. stability • Male are motivated to invest in making life long professions Chances • females perceptions of the value of their work remain lowfor upward • males views about their work are improving mobility and job stability
  15. 15. …Conclusion • What to be done for females who obviously enjoy some aspects of their jobs, but face challenges in meeting both their long term physical and implication psychological needs and which militate against them having fulfilling and satisfying jobs in the industry. • This requires a complete restructuring of implication ideologies about the functions in the hierarchy, in terms of gender specific roles. • Hospitality organizations must tap into the perceptions of their employees who are most important to the success of the organization, debunk the notion that mens work in implication the industry is inherently more valuable than womens and move towards meaningful strategies to remove the traces of the sticky floor, on which women in particular, perceive themselves to be.