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PBLL Generating Project Ideas & Driving Questions

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A presentation given as part of the NFLRC's Fundamentals of PBLL Online Institute in January 2018

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PBLL Generating Project Ideas & Driving Questions

  1. 1. PBLL FUNDAMENTALS OF Cherice Montgomery, Ph.D. Brigham Young University cherice_montgomery@byu.edu nflrc.hawaii.edu PBLL: Generating Successful Project Ideas & Driving Questions
  2. 2. GUIDING QUESTIONS • Where can I find meaningful project ideas? • How can I develop a project idea that is meaningful, motivating, and moving? • What process can I use to help me craft a powerful “driving question?” Image: M.S.
  3. 3. Image: Logga Wiggler
  4. 4. Image: d97jro Notice problems…and possibilities. Reflect
  5. 5. Image: Karen Dymit A Problem: How can we increase enrollment? Example of a driving question: http://savefrenchpbl.weebly.com/
  6. 6. Image: Karen Dymit - Generate sustained inquiry
  7. 7. • Purpose: To create a user- friendly map and guide for Japanese visitors to campus • Partners: Campus Center & the International Services Office • Product(s): Campus map and guide • Public Audience: Japanese visitors Japanese Campus Map & Guide by Yumiko Tateyama
  8. 8. • Purpose: To inform Russian tourists about things to see and do in Singapore • Partners: Pan Pacific Hotel • Product(s): Map • Public Audience: Russian tourists in Singapore The Local Scoop: Engaging Russian Tourists in Visits to Singapore by Amanda Lerner
  9. 9. Images: d97jro & Cherice Montgomery What concerns, interests, or intrigues you?
  10. 10. GO GLOBAL! Image: Bartek Ambrozik How does your textbook topic relate to a current global issue?
  11. 11. GLOBAL THEMES AP LANGUAGE & CULTURE Image: The College Board How do global issues connect to AP themes?
  12. 12. The AP Global Themes are rich sources for project ideas!
  13. 13. • What do your learners want to change about the world? • What do your learners have to contribute to the world? • “…Where your greatest joy meets the world’s deepest need” (Frederick Buechner) Image: Lacy Cooke & Woodleywonderworks Will your learners care enough to pursue this on their own?
  14. 14. Images: Logga Wiggler & Robin L. Burrage Driving Question: How can we help the world gain a more nuanced perspective on Arab cultures? Can you identify the…Textbook Topic ♦ Global Issue ♦ Cultural Context ♦ Career Pathway ♦ Connection to Learners? • Purpose: To help the local community gain a more nuanced perspective on Arab cultures • Partners: Migrant workers, American businessmen, Arab women • Product(s): Multimedia presentation • Public Audience: Local community
  15. 15. • Purpose: To strengthen global engagement • Partners: School in Ecuador • Product(s): Children’s book series that introduces children to various parts of the world • Public Audience: Elementary school students in Ecuador The Little Explorers Project by Maria Paredes-Fernandez
  16. 16. • Purpose: To improve access to education for girls • Partners: Peace Corps Match Village in Rural Western Africa; Alliance Française de Sacramento • Product(s): Community forum with multimedia presentations and exhibits • Public Audience: Francophone community in California Girl Power by Nicole Naditz
  17. 17. • Purpose: To convince others of the importance of Easy Japanese as a tool for emergency communication • Partners: Volunteers in Japan who work with immigrants • Product(s): A newsletter and website • Public Audience: Developers, instructors, junior high school students, and volunteers who study or learn Easy Japanese in Japan Easy Japanese by Naoko Nemoto
  18. 18. Connect to cultural contexts Image: Nuno Alexandre Moura Rodrigues How might you connect your textbook topic and related global issue to a cultural context from your target culture(s)?
  19. 19. • Purpose: To reduce illiteracy • Partners: Students and professors from two different Brazilian universities • Product(s): A literacy campaign and children’s books • Public Audience: Young readers in poor communities in the state of Bahia in Northeastern Brazil Encouraging & Engaging Young Brazilian Readers by Rachel Mamiya Hernandez
  20. 20. • Purpose: To raise awareness of the health effects of fast food consumption • Partners: High school students in Arezzo, Italy • Product(s): Social media campaign • Public Audience: High school students in Arezzo, Italy Not So Fast: The Influx of American Fast Food in Italy and Its Effects on Italian Youth by Daniela Busciglio
  21. 21. Huffington Post Image: Zander Srodes & Linda Soderquist How can we educate people about the importance of preserving sea turtles? Can you identify the…Textbook Topic ♦ Global Issue ♦ Cultural Context ♦ Career Pathway ♦ Connection to Learners?
  22. 22. Image: Rob Gross Connect to a Career Pathway
  23. 23. A Challenge: How can we improve the quality of health care in our respective countries? Image: Susan Caldwell Can you identify the… Textbook Topic ♦ Global Issue ♦ Cultural Context ♦ Career Pathway ♦ Connection to Learners?
  24. 24. • Purpose: To interactively engage children with art • Partners: Spanish-speaking tour guides at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, MA • Product(s): Activity Brochure • Public Audience: Spanish-speaking patrons of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, MA Museo para muchachos by Abby Carle
  25. 25. Image: 4driano Ask the learners!
  26. 26. $5 million in 3 months $52,000
  27. 27. • Purpose: To parody Romeo & Juliet • Partners: • Product(s): Video • Public Audience: South Asian audience Ramu-Leelu in Honolulu by Sai Bhatawadekar
  28. 28. • Purpose: To preserve memories of Spanish-speaking families that contribute to the history of the community • Partners: Family Research Center & Heritage Museum in Layton, UT • Product(s): Magazine • Public Audience: Spanish-speaking patrons of the Heritage Museum and high school Spanish learners Preserving the History of Unknown Voices by Ingrid Campos Montero
  29. 29. Image: Robert Couse-Baker Determining a “Destination” by Formulating a Driving Question Where do you want to go?
  30. 30. Image: Benjamin Earwicker
  31. 31. Image: Patrick Hajzler Gives direction to the project (Is aligned with curriculum)
  32. 32. Evokes learners’ curiosity Image: Eugenia Loli
  33. 33. Image: Happykidswdm Explores real world contexts (Global issues & cultural contexts)
  34. 34. Image: Nicholas A. Tonelli Is open-ended
  35. 35. Has multiple possible answers that can’t be “Googled” or found in a textbook Image: Jason Weaver (like a Career Pathway)
  36. 36. Image: Eduoardo Bartoccetti Frames & bounds exploration
  37. 37. Image: Alex Cherry Do learners… 1) bubble with questions? 2) explore on their own? 3) rush to tell you what they’ve learned? Motivates sustained inquiry & action
  38. 38. Image: A bloke called Jerm Fosters interpersonal communication
  39. 39. Image: Jace Encourages learners to… • Ask questions • Describe • Narrate • State an opinion • Hypothesize • Generalize
  40. 40. Image: Fotalia Invites
  41. 41. Images: Cherice Montgomery, Paula Navarro & Hipopp
  42. 42. Image: IceEye From Topic  Driving Question Topic or AP Theme Related Global Issue or Social Problem Related Cultural Context or Pragmatic Issue Related Career Pathway or Disciplinary Content Connection to Learners’ Lives Use the boxes to progressively develop your idea
  43. 43. From Topic  Driving Question Textbook Topics Body Parts Animals Global Issues Health Care Environmental Pollution Cultural Context(s) Access to Health Care in the D.R. & the U.S. Sea Turtles in the Gallapagos Career Pathways Health Sciences Agriculture, Food, & Natural Resources (Marine Biology) Driving Questions How can we improve access to health care information? How can we educate people about sea turtles? What do you notice about the progression of the topic? What do these driving questions still lack?
  44. 44. Images: Sra. Spanglish & Timo Newton-Syms IDEAS FOR NOVICE- LEVEL PROJECTS & DRIVING QUESTIONS
  45. 45. In other words, PBLL provides a framework for engaging learners in an authentic context & purpose for language use
  46. 46. Formula for writing a learning outcome that integrates language, content, and culture: Students will (proficiency-based communicative language function) about (global issue or social problem) in (cultural context) using information from (Career Pathway), (grammatical structure), and (vocabulary topic).
  47. 47. Image: Public Domain Pictures The reality of PBLL can be messy, but it is still worth the trip!
  48. 48. Image: Logga Wiggler What is the very next step you and your learners will take in planning your PBLL journey?
  49. 49. TEST YOURSELF • Where can I find meaningful project ideas? • How can I develop a project idea that is meaningful, motivating, and moving? • What process can I use to help me craft a powerful “driving question?” Image: M.S.
  50. 50. QUESTIONS? Image: Public Domain Pictures Cherice Montgomery, Ph.D. Brigham Young University cherice_montgomery@byu.edu PBLL FUNDAMENTALS OF
  51. 51. Image: Photoman This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.
  52. 52. CREDITS • 4driano. (2015). Hitchiker hitchhiking traveler 706505. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/hitchhiker-hitchhiking-traveller-706505/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • A bloke called Jerm. (2008, June 13). Driving. Flickr. Retrieved March 6, 2015, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/sharkbait/2575342289 Used under a Creative Commons Attribution, Non-commercial, Share Alike License. • Abcdz. (2010, March 31). Impossible. FreeImages.com. Retrieved January 28, 2015, from http://www.freeimages.com/photo/1272054 Used under a standard, royalty-free FreeImages.com license. • ACTFL. (2011, March). 21st century skills map. ACTFL, in collaboration with the Partnership for 21st Century Skills. Retrieved from http://www.actfl.org/files/21stCenturySkillsMap/p21_worldlanguagesmap.pdf • ACTFL. (2014). World readiness standards for learning languages. American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. Retrieved January 27, 2015, from http://www.actfl.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/World- ReadinessStandardsforLearningLanguages.pdf
  53. 53. CREDITS • Alford, Justine. (2015, January 20). 7th grader builds braille printer from lego. IFLScience.com. Retrieved January 25, 2015, from http://www.iflscience.com/technology/7th-grader-builds-lego-braille-printer-then-starts-his- own-business • Associated Press. (2007, December 26). U.S. teen brings new school to rural Cambodia. NBCNews.com. Retrieved November 2012, from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/22397372/#.UNj08m80WSo • Ambrozik, Bartek. (2011, September 22). Xxi century civilization 1. Stock Xchng. Retrieved May 11, 2012, from http://www.sxc.hu/photo/1365277 Used under a standard, royalty-free Stock Xchng license. • Bartoccetti, Edoardo. (2009, July 3). Driving. Flickr. Retrieved March 6, 2015, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/bartoccetti/3687107836 Used under a Creative Commons Attribution, Non-commercial, No Derivatives License. • BBC News. (2012, August 20). US teen invents advanced cancer test using Google. BBC News. Retrieved November 2012, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine- 19291258 (Print link)
  54. 54. CREDITS • Bellware, Kim. (2015, February 5). These middle school girls had an idea that could help Alzheimer's patients remember loved ones. Huffington Post. Retrieved February 17, 2015, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/02/05/verizon-alzheimers-app_n_6617290.html • Burrage, Robin L. (1998, May 30). A global perspective: The Arab culture in review. Retrieved May 15, 2012, from http://members.tripod.com/~Kuwait_1/frame.html • Caldwell, Susan. (n.d.). Health care in the Dominican Republic. • Cherry, Alex. (2012, February 14). Drive. Flickr. Retrieved March 6, 2015, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/ofsoundandvision/6874933863/ Used under a Creative Commons Attribution, Non-commercial, Share Alike License. • The College Board. (2011). AP Spanish language and culture curriculum framework 2013- 2014. The College Board, p. 27. Retrieved May 14, 2012, from http://media.collegeboard.com/digitalServices/pdf/ap/11b_3435_AP_SpanLang_CF_WEB_1 10930.pdf • The College Board. (2011). Global themes: AP language & culture. AP Spanish Language & Culture Curriculum Framework 2013-2014. Retrieved from http://media.collegeboard.com/digitalServices/pdf/ap/11b_3435_AP_SpanLang_CF_WEB_1 10930.pdf
  55. 55. CREDITS • Couse-Baker, Robert. (2012, November 17). A good drive was had by all. Flickr. Retrieved March 6, 2015, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/29233640@N07/8197054060 Used under a Creative Commons Attribution License. • Creative Commons. (n.d.). Creative commons licenses. Creative Commons. Image retrieved from: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/ • Decroos, Sigurd. (2009, January 13). Success & failure. Stock Xchng. Retrieved January 9, 2012, from http://www.sxc.hu/photo/1133804 Used under a standard, royalty-free Stock Xchng License. • deVito, E.B. (1989, Spring). Graduates. American Scholar. In James O. Freedman. (2003). Liberal Education & the Public Interest. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, p. 69f. Retrieved June 7, 2005, from http://www.hws.edu/news/speakers/transcripts/stranahanconv03.asp • Dictionary.com. (n.d.). Authentic. Dictionary.com. Retrieved January 25, 2017, from http://www.dictionary.com/browse/authentic • Dymit, Karen. (n.d.). Essential and driving questions: Sauvez le français! Weebly.com. Retrieved January 27, 2015, from http://savefrenchpbl.weebly.com/essential-and-driving- questions.html
  56. 56. CREDITS • Dymit, Karen. (n.d.). Sauvez le français! Weebly.com. Retrieved January 27, 2015, from http://savefrenchpbl.weebly.com/ • Earwicker, Benjamin. (2007, March 16). Merge. Stock Xchng. Retrieved May 18, 2012, from http://www.sxc.hu/photo/740620 Photographer notified. • Earwicker, Benjamin. (2007, March 23). Running on empty. FreeImages.com. Retrieved January 28, 2015, from http://www.freeimages.com/photo/745600 Used under a standard, royalty-free, FreeImages.com license. Photographer notified. • Emslichter. (2015, September 4). Opel vw bulli karmann gia 994345. Pixabay. Retrieved January 25, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/opel-vw-bulli-karmann-gia-994345/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • Entriken, William. (2005, September 9). Shifter 1425372. Freeimages.com. Retrieved January 25, 2016, from http://www.freeimages.com/photo/shifter-1425372 Used under a Freeimages.com Content License. • Fotolia. (n.d.). Hospital emergency room. Microsoft Clipart. • Fotolia. (n.d.). Innovation road sign. Microsoft Clipart. • Fotalia. (n.d.). Stick figures: Fitting arrows. Microsoft Clipart.
  57. 57. CREDITS • Froelich, Amanda. (2013, September 12). 16-year old invents bio-plastic from banana peels. True Activist. Retrieved February 18, 2014, from http://www.trueactivist.com/16-year-old-invents-sustainable-bio-plastic-from-banana-peels/ • Frost, Lindsey. (2012). Photo of Cherice Montgomery. Time is But a Moment Photography. Retrieved from http://timeisbutamomentphotography.com/lumen/ Used with permission. • Foundry. (2015). Road highway journey explore 863661. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/road-highway-journey-explore-863661/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • Foundry. (2015, February 6). Road wind drive explore road trip 839573. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/road-wind-drive-explore-road-trip-839573/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • Gibson, Caitlin. (2012, December 6). Loudoun girl, diagnosed with brain cancer, aims to help raise $1 million for Make-A-Wish Foundation. The Washington Post.Retrieved December 24, 2012, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the-state-of-nova/post/loudoun-girl-diagnosed-with- brain-cancer-aims-to-help-raise-1-million-for-make-a-wish- foundation/2012/12/06/a18d3682-3fc7-11e2-bca3-aadc9b7e29c5_blog.html (Related links: Blog, Facebook Page)
  58. 58. CREDITS • Gross, Rob. (2011, December 4). Sunset over seven lakes drive. Flickr. Retrieved March 6, 2015, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/robgross/6552646721 Used under a Creative Commons Attribution, Non-commercial, No Derivatives License. • Guglielmo, Davide. (2004, December 14). Fingerprint. Stock Xchng. Retrieved October 5, 2012, from http://www.sxc.hu/photo/227873 Used under a standard, royalty-free Stock Xchng license. • Hajzler, Patrick. (2010, January 28). Compass. Stock Xchng. Retrieved May 11, 2012, from http://www.sxc.hu/photo/1253374 Photographer notified and credited. • Happykidswdm. (2013, June 30). Jeep 4wd four wheel drive vehicle 308253. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/jeep-4wd-four-wheel-drive- vehicle-308253/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center. (2015). Fundamentals of project-based language learning. Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center. Retrieved January 28, 2015, from http://nflrc.hawaii.edu/ • Hipopp. (2011, January 16). Poverty. Stock Xchng. Retrieved October 4, 2012, from http://www.sxc.hu/photo/1330002 Used under a standard, royalty-free Stock Xchng license.
  59. 59. CREDITS • Huang, Justin. (2011, August 23). College dropout series: The whiz at quizlet. Albany Patch. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from http://albany.patch.com/articles/college-dropout-series-the-whiz-at-quizlet (Additional details and video on TechCrunch) • IceEye. (2012, June 14). Auto drive spin oldtimer 263844. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/auto-drive-spin-oldtimer-263844/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • Ilker. (2008, Mar. 16). Speedy mouse. Stock Xchng. Retrieved November 19, 2009, from http://www.sxc.hu/photo/969481 Used under a standard, royalty free, Stock.xchng Image License Agreement. • iStockphoto. (n.d.). Businessman framing face. Microsoft Clipart. • iStockphoto. (n.d.). Businessman looking up. Microsoft Clipart. • Kartik27. (2014, July 3). Driving instructors driving lessons 380066. Pixabay. Retrieved January 31, 2018, from https://pixabay.com/en/driving-instructors-driving-lessons-380066/ Used under a Creative Commons CC0 License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required.
  60. 60. CREDITS • K2-Kaji. (2014, July 26). Mountain road pass drive root 801622. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/mountain-road-pass-drive-root-801622/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • Kpgolfpro. (2015, November 6). Auto steering wheel car vehicle 1070000. Pixabay. Retrieved January 25, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/auto-steering-wheel-car-vehicle- 1070000/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • Larmer, John, & Mergendoller, John R. (2015). Gold standard PBL: Essential project design elements. BIE Blog. Buck Institute for Education. Retrieved from http://bie.org/blog/gold_standard_pbl_essential_project_design_elements • LincolnGroup. (2013, July 20). Arrows arrow road destination 167536. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/arrows-arrow-road-destination-167536/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • LoggaWiggler. (2014, November 9). Grimsel pass pass road drive 522967. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/grimsel-pass-pass-road-drive-522967/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required.
  61. 61. CREDITS • LoggaWiggler. (2008, August 6). Road straight road route America 4540. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/road-straight-road-route-america-4540/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • LoggaWiggler. (2010, November 2). Wadi mujib Jordan holiday travel 2980. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/wadi-mujib-jordan-holiday-travel- 2980/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • Loli, Eugenia. (2014, May 8). Weekend drive with aunt may at ngc 2467. Flickr. Retrieved March 6, 2015, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/eugenia_loli/14140571994 Used under a Creative Commons Attribution, Non-commercial License. • Matsuura, Kristine. (2008, January 12). You’ll put your eyes to the sun and say I know. FreeImages.com. Retrieved January 28, 2015, from http://www.freeimages.com/photo/934608 Used under a standard, royalty-free, FreeImages.com license. Photographer notified. • Microsoft Clipart. (n.d.). Heart icon button. Microsoft Clipart. • Microsoft Clipart. (n.d.). Metaphor of cogs and gears turning inside a person’s head. Microsoft Clipart.
  62. 62. CREDITS • Montgomery, Cherice. (2011). Así se dice textbook. • Montgomery, Cherice. (2006). El canto de las palomas thematic unit. Photo taken in Okemos, MI. • Montgomery, Cherice. (2011, July 6). Identity. Taken in a parking garage in Burgos, Spain. • Montgomery, Cherice. (2011). Leadership and responsibility. Think Thematic Wiki. Retrieved January 28, 2015, from http://thinkthematic21c.wikispaces.com/Leadership+%26+Responsibility • Montgomery, C. (2017). PBLL learning outcomes planning menu. • Montgomery, Cherice. (2011). Social circles of consideration. Think Thematic: Designing Meaningful Language Lessons for 21st Century Learners. • Montgomery, Cherice. (2015). Transformative learning experiences. • Montgomery, Cherice. (2011). ¡Ven conmigo! textbook. • Mulders, Milca. (n.d.). Junk yard 3 1498135. Freeimages.com. Retrieved January 25, 2016, from http://www.freeimages.com/photo/junk-yard-3-1498135 Used under a Freeimages.com Content License.
  63. 63. CREDITS • Navarro, Paula. (2006, December 9). Anchor. Stock Xchng. Retrieved May 11, 2012, from http://www.sxc.hu/photo/676899 • Newton-Syms, Timo. (2005, April 30). Drive. Flickr. Retrieved March 6, 2015, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/timo_w2s/305245555 Used under a Creative Commons Attribution, Share-Alike License. • Photoman. (2007, June 19). Road forest perspective landscape 1034082. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/road-forest-perspective-landscape-1034082/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • Pico, Gabriel. (2007, December 31). See the world 1. Stock Xchng. Retrieved May 11, 2012, from http://www.sxc.hu/photo/928425 • Presentation Pro. (n.d.). Business, buttons. Microsoft Clipart. • PublicDomainPictures. (2013, November 28). Aggressive cargo cars dark drama 219804. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/aggressive-cargo-cars- dark-drama-219804/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required.
  64. 64. CREDITS • Public Domain Pictures. (2013, November 28). Abstract abstraction acceleration 219915. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/abstract-abstraction- acceleration-219915/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • Roach, John. (n.d.). 17-year-old builds artificial 'brain' to detect breast cancer. NBCNews.com. Retrieved November 2012, from http://www.nbcnews.com/technology/futureoftech/17-year-old-girl-builds-artificial-brain- detect-breast-cancer-908308 • Robfoto. (2016, February 16). Digital printing truck driver km 1198858. Pixabay. Retrieved January 31, 2018, from https://pixabay.com/en/digital-printing-truck-driver-km-1198858/ Used under a Creative Commons CC0 License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • Rodrigues, Nuno Alexandre Moura. (2009, January 3). Typographic world map. Flickr. Retrieved November 7, 2012, from http://www.flickr.com/photos/nunorodriguesnet/3162790549/ Used under a Creative Commons Attribution, Non-commercial License. • Rosen, Lauren. ACTFL world languages 21st century skills map infographic. Scribd. Retrieved May 15, 2012, from http://www.scribd.com/lryeazel/d/68036923-21stCenturyInfographic
  65. 65. CREDITS • Sizer, Theodore R., & Sizer, Nancy Faust. (1999). The students are watching: Schools and the moral contract. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Available: http://www.amazon.com/The- Students-are-Watching-Contract/dp/0807031216 • Skeeze. (2015). Aerial view Houston highways urban 1049506. Pixabay. Retrieved January 25, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/aerial-view-houston-highways-urban-1049506/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • Skeeze. (2014, November 18). Highway road aerial view 534734. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/highway-road-aerial-view-534734/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • Skeeze. (2014, December 3). Nascar racetrack auto racing speed 554353. Pixabay. Retrieved January 25, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/nascar-racetrack-auto-racing- speed-554353/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • Skeeze. (2009, September 20). Pit crew nascar tires gasoline. Pixabay. Retrieved January 25, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/pit-crew-nascar-tires-gasoline-558088/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • S., M. (2004, July 21). Street. Stock Xchng. Retrieved November 25, 2011, from http://www.sxc.hu/photo/164404 Used under a Standard, royalty-free Stock Xchng License.
  66. 66. CREDITS • Sra. Spanglish. (2013, November 15). 15 driving questions for novice Spanish. Sra. Spanglish. Retrieved January 27, 2015, from http://sraspanglish.blogspot.com/2013/11/15- driving-questions-for-novice-spanish.html and January 31, 2018, from http://www.pblinthetl.com/p/blog-page_16.html?m=1 • Srodes, Zander & Soderquist, Linda. (2010, January). Charlas de tortugas libro de actividades. OceanConnectors.org. Retrieved May 15, 2012, from http://www.oceanconnectors.org/pdfs/observationactevaluationformresourcelists/Turtle%2 0Talks_span.pdf Now available at: http://www.chnep.org/Grants/POG/TurtleTalksSpanish%20-%20Sea%20Turtles.pdf • Suc. (2013, October 10). Child car Thailand asia driving 479304. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/child-car-thailand-asia-driving-479304/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • Terimakasih0. (2014, July 11). Water river asia nature tuk tuk 975728. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/water-river-asia-nature-tuk-tuk-975728/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • Tonelli, Nicholas A. (2012, June 16). Long drive. Flickr. Retrieved March 6, 2015, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/nicholas_t/7383428640 Used under a Creative Commons Attribution License.
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  69. 69. PBLL FUNDAMENTALS OF Cherice Montgomery, Ph.D. Brigham Young University cherice_montgomery@byu.edu nflrc.hawaii.edu PBLL: Generating Successful Project Ideas & Driving Questions

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