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NFLRC PBLL Lesson 3: Developing a Project Idea and Driving Questions 2016

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This presentation explores where to find project ideas, how to develop a driving question, and some of the breakdowns that are common to project-based language learning in world language education. The presentation was given as part of a webinar series produced by the National Foreign Language Resource Center at the University of Hawaii at Manoa.

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NFLRC PBLL Lesson 3: Developing a Project Idea and Driving Questions 2016

  1. 1. PBLL FUNDAMENTALS OF Cherice Montgomery, Ph.D. Brigham Young University cherice_montgomery@byu.edu nflrc.hawaii.edu Lesson 3: Developing Project Ideas & Effective Driving Questions
  2. 2. GUIDING QUESTIONS • How do I develop a project idea that is meaningful, motivating, and moving? • How do I craft a powerful “driving question?” • How can I avoid “breakdowns” during a PBLL experience? Image: M.S.
  3. 3. Image: Kristine Matsuura PBL PBLL Project-based Language Learning
  4. 4. ages: ACTFL & Skeeze http://www.actfl.org/files/21stCenturySkillsMap/p21_worldlanguagesmap.pdf Some paths to proficiency are faster than others!
  5. 5. Image: Skeeze Project-based Language Learning Offers Multiple Paths to Proficiency
  6. 6. Image: Mischa van Lieshout Experiments & Explorations Products Problem-solving or Service Learning Performances & Simulations Inquire Make Serve Perform Different Types of Project-based Learning
  7. 7. Image: Emslichter What do quality projects have in common?
  8. 8. A Powerful Engine: Question/Problem/Challenge Image: Milca Mulders
  9. 9. Image: Unsplash Power Steering: A Meaningful Purpose
  10. 10. A Useful Product That Serves the Purpose Image: William Entriken “Geared” to Produce
  11. 11. Pleases A Public Audience Image: Skeeze
  12. 12. Image: Emslichter What do quality projects have in common? • Powerful Engine: An intriguing question, problem, challenge that elicits sustained inquiry • Power Steering: A meaningful purpose • “Geared” to Produce: A useful product • Pleases: A public audience
  13. 13. Image: K2-Kaji Connects students with authentic audiences for authentic purposes
  14. 14. Image: Suc Successful projects motivate learners to action
  15. 15. Image: Logga Wiggler
  16. 16. Image: d97jro Notice problems…and possibilities
  17. 17. Images: d97jro & Cherice Montgomery What concerns, interests, or intrigues you?
  18. 18. Image: Woodleywonderworks • What do you want to change about the world? • How can you change it? • Who can help you?
  19. 19. Image: Karen Dymit A Problem: How can we increase enrollment?
  20. 20. Image: Karen Dymit - Generate sustained inquiry
  21. 21. Connect to cultural contexts Image: Nuno Alexandre Moura Rodrigues
  22. 22. A Challenge: How can we improve the quality of health care? Image: Susan Caldwell
  23. 23. GO GLOBAL! Image: Bartek Ambrozik
  24. 24. GLOBAL THEMES AP LANGUAGE & CULTURE Image: The College Board
  25. 25. Images: Logga Wiggler & Robin L. Burrage A Question: How can we help the world gain a more nuanced perspective on Arab cultures?
  26. 26. Image: 4driano Ask the Learners
  27. 27. Huffington Post Image: Zander Srodes & Linda Soderquist How can we educate people about the importance of preserving sea turtles?
  28. 28. $5 million in 3 months $52,000
  29. 29. Image: Youth Changing the World Image: Laura
  30. 30. Images: Foundry & Cherice Montgomery
  31. 31. Image: Robert Couse-Baker How do I craft a powerful driving question?
  32. 32. Image: Benjamin Earwicker
  33. 33. Image: Patrick Hajzler Gives direction to the project
  34. 34. Evokes curiosity Image: Eugenia Loli
  35. 35. Image: Happykidswdm Explores real world contexts
  36. 36. Image: Nicholas A. Tonelli Is open-ended
  37. 37. Has multiple possible answers that can’t be “Googled” or found in a textbook Image: Jason Weaver
  38. 38. Image: Eduoardo Bartoccetti Frames & bounds exploration
  39. 39. Image: Alex Cherry Do students… 1) bubble with questions? 2) explore on their own? 3) rush to tell you what they’ve learned? Motivates inquiry and action
  40. 40. Image: A bloke called Jerm Motivates communication
  41. 41. Image: Jace Encourages students to… • Describe • Narrate • Hypothesize
  42. 42. Image: Fotalia Invites
  43. 43. Personally Empowering Emotionally Engaging Meaningful Contexts What moves us? What transforms us? Images: Davide Guglielmo & Microsoft Clipart Transformative Learning Experiences ♦ 2015 ♦ Cherice Montgomery, Ph.D. ♦ cherice_montgomery@byu.edu Cognitively Challenging Socially Satisfying
  44. 44. Images: Cherice Montgomery Start with your textbook
  45. 45. Images: Paula Navarro & Hipopp Identify a conceptual anchor
  46. 46. Image: Rob Gross EXPAND PERSPECTIVES WITH THE CULTURAL TRIANGLE Creative Action & Social Transformation Personal Reflection on Connections to Self & Other Disciplines Cultural Explorations & Comparisons Why should it matter to students? Perspectives ProductsPractices Conceptual Anchor
  47. 47. EXPAND THE TEXTBOOK TOPIC BY ASKING: Narrow Topic Broader Topic Grounded in Social Problems & Cultural Contexts Art Social problems • Art as social commentary in target culture(s) Farm Vocabulary Organic food movement • Migrant workers Present Subjunctive Popular media • Advertising in TL Preterit v. Imperfect Childhood • Street Children in Colombia “How does the textbook topic relate to social problems & cultural contexts?” Images: Cherice Montgomery
  48. 48. THE POWER OF DEPTH & COMPLEXITY ”WHY SHOULD IT MATTER TO STUDENTS?” (HELENA CURTAIN) Thematic Topic PBLL connects culture, learners, disciplinary content, and society! Art as Social Commentary Cultural Explorations & Comparisons: How have various forms of art functioned as social commentary in the target culture(s)? Personal Reflection: What comments would I like to make about society? Creative Action: How can I use my creative voice to transform society in positive ways? Popular Media Cultural Explorations & Comparisons: How are advertising techniques used in the popular media influenced by culture? Personal Reflection: How does popular media influence me? Society? In what ways does my life “advertise” certain values, beliefs, and principles? Creative Action: How can I use media to change the world?
  49. 49. Image: IceEye From Topic  Driving Question Topic Conceptual Issue Social Problem Cultural Context Driving Question
  50. 50. From Topic  Driving Question Topics School Body Parts Professions Animals Conceptual Issues Education Health & Hygiene 21st Century Skills Environment Social Problems Literacy Health Care Globalization Pollution Cultural Contexts Language Study in Europe Access to Health Care in the D.R. U.S. Relations with the Middle East Sea Turtles in the Gallapagos Driving Questions How can we increase enrollment in French classes? How can we improve the quality of health care? How can we help the world gain a more nuanced perspective on Arab cultures? How can we education people about sea turtles?
  51. 51. Images: Sra. Spanglish & Timo Newton-Syms SAMPLE DRIVING QUESTIONS
  52. 52. Image: Abcdz
  53. 53. Image: Unsplash Sometimes we forget to plan for logistics
  54. 54. Do the projects we design prepare learners for the real world? Image: ACTFL
  55. 55. Image: Benjamin Earwicker
  56. 56. Images: Public Domain Pictures & Lauren Rosen In other words… successful PBLL incorporates 21st Century Skills Communication Collaboration Critical Thinking/Problem-Solving Creativity & Innovation Information Literacy Media Literacy Technology Literacy Flexibility & Adaptability Initiative & Self-Direction Social & Cross-cultural Skills Productivity & Accountability Leadership & Responsibility
  57. 57. Image: Lincoln Group Sometimes we forget the purpose: Proficiency
  58. 58. Does the project naturally generate a need to communicate? Does the project encourage all three modes of communication? Images: ACTFL
  59. 59. Image: Public Domain Pictures Sometimes we forget the culture
  60. 60. Does the project engage students in cultural exploration? Does the project require students to relate cultural products and practices to cultural perspectives? Does the project support students in becoming better learners of culture? Images: ACTFL
  61. 61. Image: Terimakasih0 Sometimes we forget to guide learners in exploring other disciplines
  62. 62. Does the project motivate students to explore other disciplines? Does the project necessitate the use of the target language to acquire information? Images: ACTFL
  63. 63. Image: Tda3 Sometimes we forget to compare & contrast
  64. 64. Does the project give students opportunities to compare and contrast their own language and cultures with the target language and cultures? Images: ACTFL
  65. 65. Image: Unsplash Sometimes we forget language use occurs in community with others
  66. 66. Does the project bring the community into the classroom? Does the project involve students in interacting with, improving, or serving target language populations in the local or global community? Does the project engage students with real audiences for real life purposes? Images: ACTFL
  67. 67. Image: Foundry language, purposes, materials, speakers, and places
  68. 68. Image: Public Domain Pictures Reality can be messy!
  69. 69. Image: Kpgolfpro Sometimes we forget to monitor & assess
  70. 70. Sometimes we fail to adapt to changing circumstances Image: Skeeze
  71. 71. Image: Adele Kurtz Graduates (an excerpt) Knowledge comes, in a way, unsought, as in the Chinese tale of the youth who came for daily lessons in what there was to learn of jade. And each day, for a single hour, while he and the master talked together always of unrelated matters, jade pieces were slipped into his hand, till one day, when a month had passed, the young man paused and with a frown, said suddenly, “That is not jade.” (deVito, 1989). Reality may be messy, but it is also a powerful teacher!
  72. 72. What constitutes a “good” project depends on the ultimate goal Image: Sigurd Decroos
  73. 73. Image: Gabriel Pico A thought on pedagogy & proficiency: “The material which stays in the student’s head only until the test will never make it into his outlook” (Theodore & Nancy Sizer, 1999, p. 37).
  74. 74. Image: Logga Wiggler Where will your next project take you and your learners?
  75. 75. QUESTIONS? Image: Public Domain Pictures Cherice Montgomery, Ph.D. Brigham Young University cherice_montgomery@byu.edu PBLL FUNDAMENTALS OF
  76. 76. Image: Photoman This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.
  77. 77. CREDITS • 4driano. (2015). Hitchiker hitchhiking traveler 706505. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/hitchhiker-hitchhiking-traveller-706505/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • A bloke called Jerm. (2008, June 13). Driving. Flickr. Retrieved March 6, 2015, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/sharkbait/2575342289 Used under a Creative Commons Attribution, Non-commercial, Share Alike License. • Abcdz. (2010, March 31). Impossible. FreeImages.com. Retrieved January 28, 2015, from http://www.freeimages.com/photo/1272054 Used under a standard, royalty-free FreeImages.com license. • ACTFL. (2011, March). 21st century skills map. ACTFL, in collaboration with the Partnership for 21st Century Skills. Retrieved from http://www.actfl.org/files/21stCenturySkillsMap/p21_worldlanguagesmap.pdf • ACTFL. (2014). World readiness standards for learning languages. American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. Retrieved January 27, 2015, from http://www.actfl.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/World- ReadinessStandardsforLearningLanguages.pdf
  78. 78. CREDITS • Alford, Justine. (2015, January 20). 7th grader builds braille printer from lego. IFLScience.com. Retrieved January 25, 2015, from http://www.iflscience.com/technology/7th-grader-builds-lego-braille-printer-then-starts-his- own-business • Associated Press. (2007, December 26). U.S. teen brings new school to rural Cambodia. NBCNews.com. Retrieved November 2012, from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/22397372/#.UNj08m80WSo • Ambrozik, Bartek. (2011, September 22). Xxi century civilization 1. Stock Xchng. Retrieved May 11, 2012, from http://www.sxc.hu/photo/1365277 Used under a standard, royalty-free Stock Xchng license. • Bartoccetti, Edoardo. (2009, July 3). Driving. Flickr. Retrieved March 6, 2015, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/bartoccetti/3687107836 Used under a Creative Commons Attribution, Non-commercial, No Derivatives License. • BBC News. (2012, August 20). US teen invents advanced cancer test using Google. BBC News. Retrieved November 2012, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine- 19291258 (Print link)
  79. 79. CREDITS • Bellware, Kim. (2015, February 5). These middle school girls had an idea that could help Alzheimer's patients remember loved ones. Huffington Post. Retrieved February 17, 2015, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/02/05/verizon-alzheimers-app_n_6617290.html • Burrage, Robin L. (1998, May 30). A global perspective: The Arab culture in review. Retrieved May 15, 2012, from http://members.tripod.com/~Kuwait_1/frame.html • Caldwell, Susan. (n.d.). Health care in the Dominican Republic. • Cherry, Alex. (2012, February 14). Drive. Flickr. Retrieved March 6, 2015, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/ofsoundandvision/6874933863/ Used under a Creative Commons Attribution, Non-commercial, Share Alike License. • The College Board. (2011). AP Spanish language and culture curriculum framework 2013- 2014. The College Board, p. 27. Retrieved May 14, 2012, from http://media.collegeboard.com/digitalServices/pdf/ap/11b_3435_AP_SpanLang_CF_WEB_1 10930.pdf • The College Board. (2011). Global themes: AP language & culture. AP Spanish Language & Culture Curriculum Framework 2013-2014. Retrieved from http://media.collegeboard.com/digitalServices/pdf/ap/11b_3435_AP_SpanLang_CF_WEB_1 10930.pdf
  80. 80. CREDITS • Couse-Baker, Robert. (2012, November 17). A good drive was had by all. Flickr. Retrieved March 6, 2015, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/29233640@N07/8197054060 Used under a Creative Commons Attribution License. • Creative Commons. (n.d.). Creative commons licenses. Creative Commons. Image retrieved from: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/ • Decroos, Sigurd. (2009, January 13). Success & failure. Stock Xchng. Retrieved January 9, 2012, from http://www.sxc.hu/photo/1133804 Used under a standard, royalty-free Stock Xchng License. • deVito, E.B. (1989, Spring). Graduates. American Scholar. In James O. Freedman. (2003). Liberal Education & the Public Interest. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, p. 69f. Retrieved June 7, 2005, from http://www.hws.edu/news/speakers/transcripts/stranahanconv03.asp • Dymit, Karen. (n.d.). Essential and driving questions: Sauvez le français! Weebly.com. Retrieved January 27, 2015, from http://savefrenchpbl.weebly.com/essential-and-driving- questions.html • Dymit, Karen. (n.d.). Sauvez le français! Weebly.com. Retrieved January 27, 2015, from http://savefrenchpbl.weebly.com/
  81. 81. CREDITS • Earwicker, Benjamin. (2007, March 16). Merge. Stock Xchng. Retrieved May 18, 2012, from http://www.sxc.hu/photo/740620 Photographer notified. • Earwicker, Benjamin. (2007, March 23). Running on empty. FreeImages.com. Retrieved January 28, 2015, from http://www.freeimages.com/photo/745600 Used under a standard, royalty-free, FreeImages.com license. Photographer notified. • Emslichter. (2015, September 4). Opel vw bulli karmann gia 994345. Pixabay. Retrieved January 25, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/opel-vw-bulli-karmann-gia-994345/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • Entriken, William. (2005, September 9). Shifter 1425372. Freeimages.com. Retrieved January 25, 2016, from http://www.freeimages.com/photo/shifter-1425372 Used under a Freeimages.com Content License. • Fotolia. (n.d.). Hospital emergency room. Microsoft Clipart. • Fotolia. (n.d.). Innovation road sign. Microsoft Clipart. • Fotalia. (n.d.). Stick figures: Fitting arrows. Microsoft Clipart.
  82. 82. CREDITS • Froelich, Amanda. (2013, September 12). 16-year old invents bio-plastic from banana peels. True Activist. Retrieved February 18, 2014, from http://www.trueactivist.com/16-year-old-invents-sustainable-bio-plastic-from-banana-peels/ • Frost, Lindsey. (2012). Photo of Cherice Montgomery. Time is But a Moment Photography. Retrieved from http://timeisbutamomentphotography.com/lumen/ Used with permission. • Foundry. (2015). Road highway journey explore 863661. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/road-highway-journey-explore-863661/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • Foundry. (2015, February 6). Road wind drive explore road trip 839573. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/road-wind-drive-explore-road-trip-839573/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • Gibson, Caitlin. (2012, December 6). Loudoun girl, diagnosed with brain cancer, aims to help raise $1 million for Make-A-Wish Foundation. The Washington Post.Retrieved December 24, 2012, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the-state-of-nova/post/loudoun-girl-diagnosed-with- brain-cancer-aims-to-help-raise-1-million-for-make-a-wish- foundation/2012/12/06/a18d3682-3fc7-11e2-bca3-aadc9b7e29c5_blog.html (Related links: Blog, Facebook Page)
  83. 83. CREDITS • Gross, Rob. (2011, December 4). Sunset over seven lakes drive. Flickr. Retrieved March 6, 2015, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/robgross/6552646721 Used under a Creative Commons Attribution, Non-commercial, No Derivatives License. • Guglielmo, Davide. (2004, December 14). Fingerprint. Stock Xchng. Retrieved October 5, 2012, from http://www.sxc.hu/photo/227873 Used under a standard, royalty-free Stock Xchng license. • Hajzler, Patrick. (2010, January 28). Compass. Stock Xchng. Retrieved May 11, 2012, from http://www.sxc.hu/photo/1253374 Photographer notified and credited. • Happykidswdm. (2013, June 30). Jeep 4wd four wheel drive vehicle 308253. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/jeep-4wd-four-wheel-drive- vehicle-308253/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center. (2015). Fundamentals of project-based language learning. Hawaii National Foreign Language Resource Center. Retrieved January 28, 2015, from http://nflrc.hawaii.edu/ • Hipopp. (2011, January 16). Poverty. Stock Xchng. Retrieved October 4, 2012, from http://www.sxc.hu/photo/1330002 Used under a standard, royalty-free Stock Xchng license.
  84. 84. CREDITS • Huang, Justin. (2011, August 23). College dropout series: The whiz at quizlet. Albany Patch. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from http://albany.patch.com/articles/college-dropout-series-the-whiz-at-quizlet (Additional details and video on TechCrunch) • IceEye. (2012, June 14). Auto drive spin oldtimer 263844. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/auto-drive-spin-oldtimer-263844/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • Ilker. (2008, Mar. 16). Speedy mouse. Stock Xchng. Retrieved November 19, 2009, from http://www.sxc.hu/photo/969481 Used under a standard, royalty free, Stock.xchng Image License Agreement. • iStockphoto. (n.d.). Businessman framing face. Microsoft Clipart. • iStockphoto. (n.d.). Businessman looking up. Microsoft Clipart. • K2-Kaji. (2014, July 26). Mountain road pass drive root 801622. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/mountain-road-pass-drive-root-801622/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required.
  85. 85. CREDITS • Kpgolfpro. (2015, November 6). Auto steering wheel car vehicle 1070000. Pixabay. Retrieved January 25, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/auto-steering-wheel-car-vehicle- 1070000/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • Laura. (2009, April 2). 25 days to make a difference. Blogger. Retrieved November 2012, from http://twentyfivedays.wordpress.com/ • LincolnGroup. (2013, July 20). Arrows arrow road destination 167536. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/arrows-arrow-road-destination-167536/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • LoggaWiggler. (2014, November 9). Grimsel pass pass road drive 522967. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/grimsel-pass-pass-road-drive-522967/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • LoggaWiggler. (2008, August 6). Road straight road route America 4540. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/road-straight-road-route-america-4540/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required.
  86. 86. CREDITS • LoggaWiggler. (2010, November 2). Wadi mujib Jordan holiday travel 2980. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/wadi-mujib-jordan-holiday-travel- 2980/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • Loli, Eugenia. (2014, May 8). Weekend drive with aunt may at ngc 2467. Flickr. Retrieved March 6, 2015, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/eugenia_loli/14140571994 Used under a Creative Commons Attribution, Non-commercial License. • Matsuura, Kristine. (2008, January 12). You’ll put your eyes to the sun and say I know. FreeImages.com. Retrieved January 28, 2015, from http://www.freeimages.com/photo/934608 Used under a standard, royalty-free, FreeImages.com license. Photographer notified. • Microsoft Clipart. (n.d.). Heart icon button. Microsoft Clipart. • Microsoft Clipart. (n.d.). Metaphor of cogs and gears turning inside a person’s head. Microsoft Clipart. • Montgomery, Cherice. (2011). Así se dice textbook.
  87. 87. CREDITS • Montgomery, Cherice. (2006). El canto de las palomas thematic unit. Photo taken in Okemos, MI. • Montgomery, Cherice. (2011, July 6). Identity. Taken in a parking garage in Burgos, Spain. • Montgomery, Cherice. (2011). Leadership and responsibility. Think Thematic Wiki. Retrieved January 28, 2015, from http://thinkthematic21c.wikispaces.com/Leadership+%26+Responsibility • Montgomery, Cherice. (2011). Realidades textbook. • Montgomery, Cherice. (2011). Social circles of consideration. Think Thematic: Designing Meaningful Language Lessons for 21st Century Learners. • Montgomery, Cherice. (2015). Transformative learning experiences. • Montgomery, Cherice. (2011). ¡Ven conmigo! textbook. • Mulders, Milca. (n.d.). Junk yard 3 1498135. Freeimages.com. Retrieved January 25, 2016, from http://www.freeimages.com/photo/junk-yard-3-1498135 Used under a Freeimages.com Content License.
  88. 88. CREDITS • Navarro, Paula. (2006, December 9). Anchor. Stock Xchng. Retrieved May 11, 2012, from http://www.sxc.hu/photo/676899 • Newton-Syms, Timo. (2005, April 30). Drive. Flickr. Retrieved March 6, 2015, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/timo_w2s/305245555 Used under a Creative Commons Attribution, Share-Alike License. • Photoman. (2007, June 19). Road forest perspective landscape 1034082. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/road-forest-perspective-landscape-1034082/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • Pico, Gabriel. (2007, December 31). See the world 1. Stock Xchng. Retrieved May 11, 2012, from http://www.sxc.hu/photo/928425 • Presentation Pro. (n.d.). Business, buttons. Microsoft Clipart. • PublicDomainPictures. (2013, November 28). Aggressive cargo cars dark drama 219804. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/aggressive-cargo-cars- dark-drama-219804/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required.
  89. 89. CREDITS • Public Domain Pictures. (2013, November 28). Abstract abstraction acceleration 219915. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/abstract-abstraction- acceleration-219915/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • Roach, John. (n.d.). 17-year-old builds artificial 'brain' to detect breast cancer. NBCNews.com. Retrieved November 2012, from http://www.nbcnews.com/technology/futureoftech/17-year-old-girl-builds-artificial-brain- detect-breast-cancer-908308 • Rodrigues, Nuno Alexandre Moura. (2009, January 3). Typographic world map. Flickr. Retrieved November 7, 2012, from http://www.flickr.com/photos/nunorodriguesnet/3162790549/ Used under a Creative Commons Attribution, Non-commercial License. • Rosen, Lauren. ACTFL world languages 21st century skills map infographic. Scribd. Retrieved May 15, 2012, from http://www.scribd.com/lryeazel/d/68036923-21stCenturyInfographic • Sizer, Theodore R., & Sizer, Nancy Faust. (1999). The students are watching: Schools and the moral contract. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Available: http://www.amazon.com/The- Students-are-Watching-Contract/dp/0807031216
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  91. 91. CREDITS • Sra. Spanglish. (2013, November 15). 15 driving questions for novice Spanish. Sra. Spanglish. Retrieved January 27, 2015, from http://sraspanglish.blogspot.com/2013/11/15- driving-questions-for-novice-spanish.html • Srodes, Zander & Soderquist, Linda. (2010, January). Charlas de tortugas libro de actividades. OceanConnectors.org. Retrieved May 15, 2012, from http://www.oceanconnectors.org/pdfs/observationactevaluationformresourcelists/Turtle%2 0Talks_span.pdf Now available at: http://www.chnep.org/Grants/POG/TurtleTalksSpanish%20-%20Sea%20Turtles.pdf • Suc. (2013, October 10). Child car Thailand asia driving 479304. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/child-car-thailand-asia-driving-479304/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • Terimakasih0. (2014, July 11). Water river asia nature tuk tuk 975728. Pixabay. Retrieved January 23, 2016, from https://pixabay.com/en/water-river-asia-nature-tuk-tuk-975728/ Used under a CC0 Public Domain License. Free for commercial use. No attribution required. • Tonelli, Nicholas A. (2012, June 16). Long drive. Flickr. Retrieved March 6, 2015, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/nicholas_t/7383428640 Used under a Creative Commons Attribution License.
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  94. 94. PBLL FUNDAMENTALS OF Cherice Montgomery, Ph.D. Brigham Young University cherice_montgomery@byu.edu nflrc.hawaii.edu Lesson 3: Developing Project Ideas & Effective Driving Questions

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