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Pygmy Marmoset Presentation-Cindy Henry

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Attached is my submission for the online presentation on the pygmy marmoset.

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Pygmy Marmoset Presentation-Cindy Henry

  1. 1. Pygmy Marmoset More Than Meets the Eye (Photo Courtesy San Diego Zoo 2015) Cindy Henry Bio: 123 575 Animal Behavior
  2. 2. Description  Classification: Callithrix pygmaea  Smallest monkey in the world  Average 5.35 in (12 in with tail) & 4.2 oz  Females slightly larger than males  Average lifespan = 12 years (Photo Courtesy Luis Claudio Marigo)
  3. 3. Description (cont.)—Physical Attributes  Brownish-gold fur  Black ticking on shoulders, back, head  Ventral fur is light yellow to white  Tails longer than bodies—marked with black rings  Not prehensile (capable of grasping)  Mane of hair covers forehead and ears  White marks on both sides of mouth and stripe down nose (Photo Courtesy Monkey Worlds 2014)
  4. 4. Description (cont.)—Physical Attributes  Elongated, narrow incisors  Claw-like nails (tegulae)  Do not have opposable thumbs  Leap 15 ft  Turn head 180 degrees  Predatory defense ability (Photo Courtesy San Diego Zoo 2015)
  5. 5. Habitat  Native to Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia, Brazil  Live in evergreen forests and edge of river floodplains  Keep to vertical sections near ground level to about 65ft  Home range about 2.5 acres  Home ranges of nearby groups do not overlap  Groups will exchange home ranges once a group leaves a given area (Google Maps 2015)
  6. 6. Communication  Use vocal cues, visual indicators, and scent  Use different vocal cues to communicate different information  Squeaky, closed mouth trills to recognize group members  Soft, twittery chirps to indicate submission  Loud, open mouth trills to signal alarm (Video Courtesy BBC, Found at Atheist Planet Blog 2010) Skip to 5:30-6:15 to hear calls of the pygmy marmoset encountering another group. Direct Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SSVF4CuXYno
  7. 7. Feeding Patterns/Diet  Exuditavore-insectivore  Feed on gum, sap, insects  60 to 80% of their total feeding time is spent on exudates, 12 to 16% on insects  Uses elongated incisors to make circular holes in tree to extract sap/gum  Will feed from the same tree until it no longer yields exudates  Can make up to 1,300 holes in a single tree  move between trees within their home range  Two peaks of feeding over the course of a day  6:00am-9:00am  3:00pm-6:00pm (Video Courtesy National Geographic 2012) See how pygmy marmosets feed on trees and prey on insects. Direct link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=okoq04AocBk
  8. 8. Natural Enemies Most common predators:  several birds of prey  small wildcats  climbing snakes  capuchin monkeys  Tayras  Fur acts as camouflage in their surroundings Common feeding competition:  Saddleback and mustached tamarins  Feed from holes made by marmosets  Ants  Carry solidified gum from the trees
  9. 9. Social Behavior  Tight knit group—typically consists of 2 to 9 members:  Dominant male and female  Their offspring  Occasional unrelated members  Use sleeping sites as a group, travel together and feed.  Between feedings, they engage in grooming, huddling, and playing together  All interactions are internal/exclusive to group (Photo Courtesy San Diego Zoo 2015)
  10. 10. Reproduction  Monogamous  Dominant male and female that produce offspring  Studies indicate females use olfactory cues/behavior to convey reproductive state  Gestation period: 4.5 months  Give birth to non-identical twins  Newborns weigh .5oz at birth (Photo Courtesy Frösö Zoo 2006) Two albino pygmy marmosets shown shorty after birth.
  11. 11. Reproduction (cont.)—Infant care  Maternal duties are minimal—limited to nursing, anogenital licking, protection against predators  All other duties fall on father, siblings, and group members:  24 hours after birth, these members are responsible for carrying all of the young  Infants weaned after 3 months  Reach sexual maturity around 1.5 years, reach adult weight at 2 years  Juvenile members remain with group for 2 consecutive birth cycles  May leave to find another group or start their own (Video Courtesy Houston Zoo 2009) A pygmy marmoset father carries his offspring. Direct link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DerP_2lvqJ0
  12. 12. Conservation  ‘Least concern’ on the IUCN Red List  Biggest threats:  habitat loss  several known regions protected to prevent deforestation  exotic pet trade  US banned import of primates, most South American countries have banned primate exporting (Video Courtesy Rare Species Conservatory Foundation 2013) Meet Nanita, a deaf pygmy marmoset raised in captivity after being rejected by her mother. Direct link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g6ZM2Q-D0b8
  13. 13. Research  Very limited research available  Due to their small size and regions they are found  First long-term field study conducted by Pekka Soini  provided most of the knowledge currently available on the species  Ongoing studies on pygmy marmosets in captivity  Studying behavior, reproduction, communication

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