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By
Maryum Atique
M. Phill chemistry
University of Agriculture
FSD.
CONTENTS
 Introduction
 Quality Assessment and its Importance
 Type of Quality Parameter
 Explanation and Discussion

...
HYDROSPHERE
 It Contain all the water






resources
It include
(Oceans,Rivers,lakes,Glaci
ers,Ground Water etc)
Oce...
Fresh water
consumption
1% fresh water is
consumed as
• 69% is used in
agriculture
• 23% is used in
industries
• 8% is use...
Water Quality
 Water quality refers to the chemical, physical and








biological characteristics of water
Another...
Water quality assessment
 Water quality is determined by assessing three classes of







parameters: biological, c...
Water quality parameter
 are considered of primary importance to the quality of

drinking water
 the EPA drinking water ...
BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT
 Biological attributes refer to the number and types of







organisms that inhabit a waterwa...
Chemical Assessment
 Commonly measured chemical parameters

include pH,alkalinity , hardness, nitrates, nitrites and
ammo...
DO
 Oxygen saturation or dissolved oxygen (DO) is a

relative measure of the amount of oxygen that
is dissolved or carrie...
DO Probe
BOD
 Biochemical oxygen demand or B.O.D is the amount







of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic biological organis...
COD
 chemical oxygen demand (COD) test is commonly used to indirectly











measure the amount of organic c...
IMPORTANCE
 Every living thing on earth needs water to survive
 Human bodies are made up of more than 60 percent water
...
SOME PARAMETERS
• Color : colorless

 TSS : < ,80 ppm
 Odor: Odorless
 pH : 6 to 8

 Temp.15 to 25
 DO : >5ppm
 Sali...
Water Quality Standards
Parameter
Alkalinity (as CaCO3)
Ammonia (NH3-N unionized)
Ammonia (TAN) Cool-water
fish
Ammonia (T...
Water Quality Standards
Parameter

Concentration (mg/L)

Hardness, Total (as
CaCO3)
Iron (Fe)

>100

Nitrogen (N2)

<110% ...
Water Quality Standards
Parameter

Concentration (mg/L)

Oxygen Dissolved (DO)

>5
> 90 mm Hg partial pressure

Ozone (O3)...
Water quality assessment
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Water quality assessment

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Water quality assessment

  1. 1. By Maryum Atique M. Phill chemistry University of Agriculture FSD.
  2. 2. CONTENTS  Introduction  Quality Assessment and its Importance  Type of Quality Parameter  Explanation and Discussion  Applications of Q.A.  Questions and Answer session 
  3. 3. HYDROSPHERE  It Contain all the water     resources It include (Oceans,Rivers,lakes,Glaci ers,Ground Water etc) Oceans contain 97%,high salt contents, not useable Glaciers contain 2% Fresh water (surface water,rivers,lakes,ground water) 1% Distribution of water oceans glaciers fresh
  4. 4. Fresh water consumption 1% fresh water is consumed as • 69% is used in agriculture • 23% is used in industries • 8% is used for domestic purpose Uses agriculture industry domestic
  5. 5. Water Quality  Water quality refers to the chemical, physical and     biological characteristics of water Another general perception of water quality is that of a simple property that tells whether water is polluted or not. It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose. The most common standards used to assess water quality relate to health of ecosystems, safety of human health and drinking water. In fact, water quality is a complex subject, in part because water is a complex medium.
  6. 6. Water quality assessment  Water quality is determined by assessing three classes of      parameters: biological, chemical, and physical. Biological parameter : Biological attributes refer to the number and types of organisms that inhabit a waterway Chemical parameters: include DO,COD,BOD,HARDNESS,Silanity,pH etc Assessment of water quality by its chemistry includes measures of many elements and molecules dissolved or suspended. Physical parameters : includes TSS,TDS,Temp,colour,odour,etc
  7. 7. Water quality parameter  are considered of primary importance to the quality of drinking water  the EPA drinking water standards are categorized as primary drinking water standards and secondary drinking water standards  Primary drinking water standards regulate organic and inorganic chemicals, microbial pathogens, and radioactive elements that may affect the safety of drinking water  Secondary drinking water standards regulate chloride, colour, copper, corrosivity, foaming agents, iron, manganese, odour, pH, sulfates, total dissolved solids, and zinc, all of which may affect qualities of drinking water like taste, odour, colour, and appearance.
  8. 8. BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT  Biological attributes refer to the number and types of     organisms that inhabit a waterway Bioassessment of macro invertebrates is a procedure that uses inexpensive equipment, is scientifically valid if done correctly, Bioassessments can provide benchmarks to which other waters may be compared and can also be used to define rehabilitation goals and to monitor trends Method (Sample+TSB+25 t035C+72 Hours)
  9. 9. Chemical Assessment  Commonly measured chemical parameters include pH,alkalinity , hardness, nitrates, nitrites and ammonia, ortho and total phosphates, and dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand  Chemical measures can also be used to detect imbalances within the ecosystem.  In addition, some "chemical" measurements actually indicate the physical presence of pollutants in water. These include measurements such as conductivity and density.
  10. 10. DO  Oxygen saturation or dissolved oxygen (DO) is a relative measure of the amount of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium  It can be measured with a dissolved oxygen probe such as an oxygen sensor or an opted in liquid media, usually water. The standard unit is milligrams per litre (mg/l) or parts per million (ppm).  Also known as Oxy.saturation  Prob are like fule cell.semipermiable membrine
  11. 11. DO Probe
  12. 12. BOD  Biochemical oxygen demand or B.O.D is the amount     of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic biological organisms in a body of water to break down organic material present in a given water sample at certain temperature over a specific time period This is not a precise quantitative test although it is widely used as an indication of the organic quality of water The BOD value is most commonly expressed in milligrams of oxygen consumed per litre of sample during 5 days of incubation at 20 °C Method
  13. 13. COD  chemical oxygen demand (COD) test is commonly used to indirectly          measure the amount of organic compounds in water Most applications of COD determine the amount of organic pollutants found in surface water (e.g. lakes and rivers) or wastewater . It is expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L) Strong oxidizing agent are used at acidic conditions COD = (C/FW)(RMO)(32) Where C = Concentration of oxidizable compound in the sample ,FW = Formula weight of the oxidizable compound in the sample ,RMO = Ratio of the # of moles of oxygen to # of moles of oxidizable compound in their reaction to CO2, water, and ammonia For example, if a sample has 500 wppm of phenol: C6H5OH + 7O2 → 6CO2 + 3H2OCOD = (500/94)(7)(32) = 1191 wppm
  14. 14. IMPORTANCE  Every living thing on earth needs water to survive  Human bodies are made up of more than 60 percent water  We use clean water to drink, grow crops for food, operate factories, and     for swimming, surfing, fishing and sailing. Water is vitally important to every aspect of our lives Monitoring the quality of surface water will help protect our waterways from pollution. Farmers Our local, state and national governments use monitoring information to help control pollution levels. Water quality can be difficult to measure. Water is a vast network of branching rivers, springs, creeks, swamps, estuaries, wetlands, lakes, b ays, etc so the more we monitor our water the better we will be able to recognize and prevent contamination problems.
  15. 15. SOME PARAMETERS • Color : colorless  TSS : < ,80 ppm  Odor: Odorless  pH : 6 to 8  Temp.15 to 25  DO : >5ppm  Salinity : <50 ppm  Ozone : < 0.005 ppm TDS : < 400 ppm Fe :
  16. 16. Water Quality Standards Parameter Alkalinity (as CaCO3) Ammonia (NH3-N unionized) Ammonia (TAN) Cool-water fish Ammonia (TAN) Warm-water fish Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Tolerant Species (tilapia) Sensitive Species (salmonids) Concentration (mg/L) 50-300 <0.0125 (Salmonids) <1.0 <3.0 <60 <20
  17. 17. Water Quality Standards Parameter Concentration (mg/L) Hardness, Total (as CaCO3) Iron (Fe) >100 Nitrogen (N2) <110% total gas pressure <0.15 <103 % as nitrogen gas Nitrite (NO2) <1, 0.1 in soft water Nitrate (NO3) 0-400 or higher Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course
  18. 18. Water Quality Standards Parameter Concentration (mg/L) Oxygen Dissolved (DO) >5 > 90 mm Hg partial pressure Ozone (O3) <0.005 pH 6.5-8.5 Salinity <0.5 to 1 Total dissolved solids (TDS) <400 Total suspended solids (TSS) <80 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems Short Course

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