Cognition – mental processes such as thinking or perceiving by which the individual obtaining knowledge or become aware of environment.Metacognitive – knowing about knowing
For many years professionalwas not interested in cognition, largely because of the popularity of behaviorism. They were interested in the observable behavior or behavior that can be measured.
whereas behaviorist are concern with association of stimulus and response, cognitive psychologist concentrate on what occurs between the S and R. basically they want to know what goes on “inside our heads”.
First, Psychologist were interested in the “content of thinking” or what people are thinking when faced with problem-solving tasks. Then it came to point that they began also to study “the how of thinking” that leads to the discovery of the different “Cognitive Styles”* “Learning styles refer to ways that people learn information, and cognitivestyles are more global, referring to the way that people see the world around them and interact with it (Jonassen& Grabowski, 1993).”
Look at the row of strange shapes below. Can you find what the message is?
people are termed field independent (FI) if they are able toabstract an element from its context, or background field. In that case, they tend to be more analytic andapproach problems in a more analytical way. Field dependent (FD) people, on the other hand, are more likely tobe better at recalling social information such as conversation and relationships. They approach problems in amore global way by perceiving the total picture in a given context.
Reflection is the delay of decision-making in situations where a correct response is not obvious; the operational definition has added that the delay must result in choosing the correct alternative. impulsivity is the wuick choice of an alternative without adequate consideration of options; the operational definition has added that the fast response must result in incorrect choice.
Just like the work on cognitive styles, the study of memory processes of students with LD has gained a lot of impetus from the fact that teachers see it as relevant to everyday functioning of students w/ LD. “ in one ear and out the other” is commonly heard phrase when teachers discuss a student with LD. Indeed teachers handling with LD are quick to agree that stud with LD significantly displays diff. with memory.MEMORY information is used or stored for later retrievalShort term memory- this is in contrast to long term memory which requires the retention of information over several hours days or longer.Ex. Of WM : everyday exam. Of WM would thus include holding a person’s address in mind while listening to instruction about how to get there, or listening to the sequence of events n a story while trying to understand what the story means. It differs from short term cause ST typically used to describe situations in which small amounts of material are held passively (digt or word span tasks) and then reproduced in an untransformed fashion.
There are some important reasons why students with LD do so poorly on memory tasks esp. short term memory task – for one thing they do not use memory strategies that would make the task easlier. These strategies are commonly evident to regular students. These are:Students with learning disabilities tend not to employ these strategies of rehearsal and organization, although they can be trained in these strategies.
Students with LD had more diff. than the regular students in answering these metamemory questions. Like to the last question, most student in both groups said they would write it down ; when asked what they would do if they did not have a pencil and paper, students w/out LD were almost twice as likely to reply that they would use verbal rehearsals as a strategy.
My report ends here.So now I am giving the spotlight to my partner, Marianne to discuss the Metacomprehension in reading.
Metacognition in Persons with Learning Disability
Cognitive, Metacognitive and Motivational Problems<br />Marianne Ricamonte<br />ArcelleTadena<br />
Cognition – it refers to our ability to think<br />Metacognition – refers to our ability to think about thinking.<br />Attention – it refers to our ability to concentrate<br />Definition of Terms<br />
Cognition:<br /><ul><li>Beginning in the mid-1970’s, professionals began to criticize behavioral theory as too simplistic. This growing dissatisfaction prompted the growth of cognitive psychology.
“Humans do not passively register the world as it really is; they filter, transform, and construct the experiences which constitute their “reality” (Mahoney, 1974) </li></ul>Brief History<br />
<ul><li> In the 1960’s there was a rapid growth in an area of study that came to be called “Cognitive Styles”</li></ul>Ausburnand Ausburn (1978) defined Cognitive Styles as the “…psychological dimensions that represent the consistencies in an individual’s manner of acquiring and processing information . <br />According to Messick (1984), cognitive style deals with the manner in which people prefer to make sense out of their world by collecting, analyzing, evaluating, and interpreting data. These styles are thought to remain consistent preferences throughout life (Jonassen & Grabowski, 1993).<br />Cognitive Styles – refers to the ways of approaching solving tasks. <br />Early Research: Cognitive Styles<br />
Field Dependent vs. Field Independent<br /> this concept refers to how much individuals are influenced by their environment when ask to make decisions on perpetual tasks. <br />Different Cognitive Styles:<br />
Field Dependent – Persons who are heavily influenced by their environment. Their perceptions are less accurate because they can be “thrown off” by misleading information in their surroundings.<br /> Field Independent - individuals who are able to focus on the most essential perpetual data w/out being influenced by inessential details.<br />
Daniels (1996) summarizes the general tendencies of field dependent and independent learners asfollows:<br />Field Dependent:<br /> • Rely on the surrounding perceptual field.<br /> • Have difficulty attending to, extracting, and using non salient cues.<br /> • Have difficulty providing structure to ambiguous information.<br /> • Have difficulty restructuring new information and forging links with prior knowledge.<br /> • Have difficulty retrieving information from long-term memory.<br />Field Independent:<br /> • Perceive objects as separate from the field.<br /> • Can dissembled relevant items from non-relevant items within the field.<br /> • Provide structure when it is not inherent in the presented information.<br /> • Reorganize information to provide a context for prior knowledge.<br /> • Tend to be more efficient at retrieving items from memory<br />
Researchers have found that children become more field independent with age.(Witkin, Goodenough, & Karp, 1967). <br /> However, children who have learning disabilities are generally more field dependent than their nondisabled peers (Blackman & Goldstein, 1982).<br />Reflectivity vs. Impulsivity<br />refers to whether a person takes time to reflect on various alternative before making a choice on difficult but solvable tasks.<br /> Reflective learners -tend to make a slower, more calculated decision. <br /> They are usually more systematic and more cautious in learning. <br />
Impulsive learners - tend to make a quick or gambling guess at an<br /> answer to a problem. They are usually more<br /> intuitive and more willing to take risks in learning. <br /> It is also important to note that impulsivity, as a cognitive style is not the<br /> same as having an impulsive personality (Sternberger &Grigorenko, 1997).<br /> The Matching Familiar Figures Test is used to measure the bipolar trait of reflection-impulsivity.<br />The original children's version of the MFFT contains two practice and 12 experimental items. Each item consists of a standard picture of a common object and six variants, one identical to the standard and five slightly different in one detail each. The subject is to choose the variant that matches the standard, with five incorrect choices allowed per problem. The responses are timed. The instrument is projective, which can be self-administered. <br />
Researchers found that those children who respond more slowly and make fewer errors were reflective, whereas impulsive children respond quickly but make many errors.<br /> Also, researchers have generally found the reflectivity-impulsivity dimension to developmentally sensitive, with children becoming more reflective with age.<br /> In addition, children with learning disabilities are more apt to be impulsive than regular children (Blackman & Goldstein, 1982).<br />
Memory <br /> -the function involved reliving past experiences <br /> -totality of past experiences which can be remembered.<br />Types of memory:<br />Short –term memory – the ability to remember information over a relatively short period of time – a few seconds or a minute or so at most.<br /> This can vary in many ways, example: In a auditory short-term memory task, the individual hears several trials of five to seven digits . After each trial, the individual is to repeat back the sequence in correct order.<br />Working Memory – refers to a person’s ability to keep a small amount of information in mind while simultaneously carrying out further operations. <br />
Research shows that those students with LD who performed well on short-term and especially in working memory tasks also performed well on reading and mathematics problem among other student with LD. <br />Memory Strategies: <br /> Rehearsal - is the repetition of the names of the to-be-remembered things.<br /> Organization – or clustering things to be remembered while rehearsing them. <br /> e.g. Fruits ; Animals etc.<br />
Metacognition<br /><ul><li>The theory was first developed in the 1970s. (Favell, 1977).</li></ul>Definition of Metacognition:<br /> “knowing about knowing” or knowledge and awareness of your own cognitive processes, how they function, when it’s likely to falter, etc. <br />“I don’t recall”<br />“I understood this fairly well”<br />“I won’t be able to solve this problem right away”<br />“I can’t study with the TV on”<br />“Her name is on the tip of my tongue”<br /><ul><li>For a student, the knowledge about how his “knowing” is progressing can help him retain more information and guide him on how to proceed when confronted with text containing ideas that must be remembered. (Paris, Lipson & Wixson, 1983).</li></li></ul><li>Example of Metacognition<br /> Knowing that a fact is or is not in long-term memory (eg. knowing that you won't know Charles Dicken's telephone number)<br /> Knowing you will recognise something when you see it (eg. knowing you will recognise the correct spelling of a word)<br /> Knowing there are categories of tasks (eg. knowing that multiple-choice tests are all alike in certain ways)<br /> Knowing that the results of one procedure should be consistent with the results of another (eg. knowing that 3 + 4 should equal 4 + 3 )<br /> Knowing that your own words are easier to recall than an author's words (eg. knowing it will be easier to say what this Table is about than to recite it word for word) <br /> <br />
Knowing how much study time will be needed (eg. knowing how to schedule homework)<br /> Knowing when a study strategy will be needed (eg. knowing when to hire a tutor)<br /> Knowing when memory aids will be needed (eg. knowing when to write down directions)<br /> Knowing which part of a task will need to be rehearsed (eg. knowing that you should drill the names of the Australian Prime Ministers for a history test)<br />(Source: Farnham-Diggory, 1992, p 81) <br />
The metacognitive process can be thought of as a form of Self-Regulation:<br />These consist of several elements : <br /> Awareness of viable strategies.<br /> Selection of an appropriate strategy.<br /> Monitoring of the use of the strategy.<br /> Possible adjustment or revision towards strategy. (Borkowski, 1992)<br />Researchers have found that students with learning disabilities are deficient in a variety of metacognitive areas such as: <br />Metamemory<br />Metalistening<br />Metacomprehension in Reading<br />
Metamemory – the ability to think about memory strategies. <br /> Questions like this tests metamemory skills: If you wanted to phone a friend, and someone told you the phone number, would it make any difference if you called right away after you heard the number or if you got a drink of water first? Why? What would you do if you wanted to try to remember a phone number? <br />
Metalistening – the ability to conceptualize the listening process.<br /> In a study for metalistening – children were told they would play a game that involved several rules. An adult presented one rule at a time, asking the children after each rule presentation if they thought they now had enough info to play the game. <br /> -The result was that children w/ LD were found to be much more likely than the regular peers to voice a readiness to play even though by objective standards they have not yet heard enough info to play the game appropriately.<br />