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  1. 1. Psychological Needs Chapter 6
  2. 2. PsychologicalNeed
  3. 3. Organismic Approach to Motivation Self-Determination Theory Two Assumptions
  4. 4. Person-Environment DialecticIn dialectic, the relationship between person and environment is reciprocal (two-way); the environment acts onthe person and the person acts on the environment. Both the person and the environment constantly change.
  5. 5. Self-Determination Theory Three Psychological NeedsAutonom y Competence Relatedness
  6. 6. Autonom yBehavior is autonomous (or self-determined) when our interests, preferences, and wantsguide our decision-making process to engage or not to engage in a particular activity.
  7. 7. Three Subjective Qualities Within The Experience Of Autonomy Perceived Autonomy Internal Volition Perceived Choice Perceived Locus of Causality (Feeling Free) over One’s Actionsan individual’s an unpressured sense of choice weunderstanding of the willingness to engage in experience when we are incausal source of his or an activity environments that provideher motivated actions us with decision-making flexibility that affords us with many opportunities to choose
  8. 8. The Conundrum ofChoice promote autonomy. Not all choices “either-or” choice offerings Choice among options offered by others • True choice over people’s actions • Meaningful choice that reflects people’s values & interests Enhance a sense of need- Enhance intrinsic motivation, satisfying autonomy effort, creativity, preference for challenge, and performance
  9. 9. Supporting AutonomyAutonomy-Supportive vs. Controlling Motivating Style Autonom y Support Interpersonal sentiment and behavior to identify, nurture, and develop another’s inner motivational resources Control Interpersonal sentiment and behavior to pressure another toward compliance with a prescribed way of thinking, feeling, or behaving
  10. 10. Supporting Autonomy Autonomy-Supportive vs. Controlling Motivating Style ENABLEING CONDITION Autonom y Support  Takes the other person’s perspective  Values personal growth opportunities Control  Pressures the other person toward a prescribed outcome  Targets a prescribed outcome
  11. 11. Supporting Autonomy Autonomy-Supportive vs. Controlling Motivating Style INSTRUCTIONAL BEHAVIORS Autonom y Support• Nurtures Inner Motivational Resources• Relies on Informational Language• Promoting Valuing• Acknowledges and Accepts Negative Affect Control• Relies on outer sources of motivation• Relies on pressuring language• Neglects explanatory rationales• Asserts power to silence negative affect and to resolve conflict
  12. 12. Four Essential Ways of SupportingAutonomy 1. Nurtures Inner Motivational Resources Autonomy-Supportive Motivators  Encourage initiative on others by identifying their interests, preferences, and competences.  Find ways to allow others to behave in ways that express those interests, preferences, and competences. • Controlling Motivators  Forgo inner motivational resources.  Rely on extrinsic motivators (e.g., incentives, directives, consequences, and deadlines).
  13. 13. Four Essential Ways of SupportingAutonom y 2. Relies on Informational Language Autonomy-Supportive Motivators  Treat listlessness, poor performance, and inappropriate behavior as motivational problems to be solved  Address the motivational problem with flexible and informational language - Diagnose the cause of the motivational problems - Communicate feedback to identify points of improvement and progress Controlling Motivators  Use a pressuring, rigid, and “no nonsense” communication style
  14. 14. Four Essential Ways of SupportingAutonom y 3. Promotes Valuing Autonomy-Supportive Motivators  Communicate the value, worth, meaning, utility, or importance of engaging in uninteresting tasks - Using a “because” phrase to explain why the uninteresting activity is worth the other’s time and effort Controlling Motivators  Do not take the time to explain the use of importance in engaging in these sorts of activities -Saying “Just get it done” or “Do it because I told you to do it”
  15. 15. Four Essential Ways of SupportingAutonomy 4. Acknowledges and Accepts Negative Affect Autonomy-Supportive Motivators  Listen carefully to the expressions of negative affect and resistance and accept them as valid reactions  Work collaboratively with the other person to solve the underlying a cause of the negative affect and resistance Controlling Motivators  Ignore the other’s expressions of negative affect and resistance  Try to change the negative affect into something more acceptable
  16. 16. Moment- to Moment Autonomy Supp ort What Autonomy-Supportive and Controlling People Say and Do to Motivate Others What Autonomy-Supportive What Controlling People People Say and Do Say and Do  Listen carefully  Hold/Hog learning  Allow others time to talk materials  Provide rationale  Show correct answers  Encourage effort  Tell correct answers  Praise progress, mastery  Speak directives, commands  Ask others what they want to do  Should, must, have to statements  Respond to questions  Ask controlling questions  Acknowledge the other’s  Seem demanding perspective Table 6.2
  17. 17. Benefits From Autonom y Support Autonomy, Competence, Relatedness   Intrinsic Motivation Motivation  Mastery Motivation & Perceived Control  Curiosity  Internalized Values  Engagement  Positive Emotion  Less Negative Emotion Engagement  Class Attendance  Persistence  School Retention vs. Dropping Out  Self-Worth Development  Creativity  Preference for Optimal Challenge
  18. 18. Benefits From Autonomy Support(Cont.)  Conceptual Understanding  Deep Processing Learning  Active Information Processing  Self-Regulation Strategies Grades  Performance Task Performance   Standardized Test Scores Psychological Psychological Well-Being  Vitality Well-Being  School/ Life Satisfaction
  19. 19. T wo Illustr ationsStudy 1 Teachers’ Autonomy- Support Students’ Perceived Autonomy Students’ Parental Self- Students’ Autonomy- Determined Dropout Support Academic Behavior Students’ Motivation Perceived CompetenceAdministrators’ Autonomy- Support Figure 6.4 Motivational Model of High-School Dropouts, p. 154
  20. 20. Two Illustrations Study 2Table 6.3 Children’s Motivational Benefits from Autonomy-Supportive(Rather Than Controlling) RulesDependent Rules Communicated Rules Communicated in aMeasure in a Controlling Way Autonomy-Supportive WayEnjoyment M 4.87 5.57 (SD) (0.99) (0.65)Free Choice M 107.7 257.1Behavior (SD) (166.0) (212.6)Creativity M 4.80 5.34 (SD) (1.16) (1.17)Technical M 4.88 5.90Goodness (SD) (0.87) (1.28)Quality M 4.84 5.62 (SD) (0.68) (1.06)
  21. 21. COMPETENCE
  22. 22. Involving CompetenceKey Environmental Conditions
  23. 23. Involving CompetenceFlow Figure 6.5 Flow Model
  24. 24. Supporting Competenc e Positive Feedback Four Sources Task itself Comparisons of one’s current performance with one’s own past performance Comparisons of one’s current performance with the performance of others Evaluations of others Pleasure of Optimal Challenge and Positive Feedback Harter’s anagram study (1974, 1978b) Children experience the greatest pleasure following success in the context of moderate challenge
  25. 25. Relatedness
  26. 26. REL ATEDNESS
  27. 27. PUTTING IT ALL TOGEHER: SOCIAL CONTEXTS THAT SUPPORT PSY CHOLOGICAL NEEDSTable 6.4 Environmental Factors that Involve and Satisfy the Psychological Needs Psychological Environmental Condition Environmental Condition Need that Involves the Need that Satisfies the NeedAutonomy Opportunities for Autonomy support self-directionCompetence Optimal challenge Positive feedbackRelatedness Social interaction Communal relationships
  28. 28. EngagementThe Engagement Model Based on Psychological Need Satisfaction
  29. 29. What Makes for a Good Day? Daily Autonomy Psychological Nutriments for Good Days Daily Daily Competence Relatedness Psychological Nutriments necessary for Good Days, Positive Well-Being, and Vitality