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The Civil Rights Movement


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The Civil Right Music (An Intro to American Music)

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The Civil Rights Movement

  1. 1. By Michelle Heilman
  2. 2.  The singing of spirituals in North America in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries was connected to the ongoing struggle for freedom forged by women and men in the enslaved African community. The association between singing and freedom began early. When newly captured Africans were loaded like cattle into the holds of slave ships (the voyage from the west coast of Africa to the Americas), singing was one of the few protest tools they had at their disposal.
  3. 3.  The chief music-making instruments for slaves were their own voices. Singing together, alone, or in call- response patterns, slaves improvised, altered, and embellished, creating sounds rich in tone and texture.  Slavery Work Songs & Calls     Swing Low Sweet Chariot - Fisk Jubilee Singers (1909)
  4. 4. The evolution of music in the black freedom struggle reflects the evolution of the movement itself. Calling songs „„the soul of the movement,‟‟ King explained in his 1964 book Why We Can’t Wait that civil rights activists „„sing the freedom songs today for the same reason the slaves sang them, because we too are in bondage and the songs add hope to our determination that „‟We shall overcome, Black and white together, We shall overcome someday‟‟
  5. 5.  On May 23, 1921, at the Cort Theatre on 63rd Street in New York City, a musical premiered that would change Broadway forever. African Americans produced, created, and performed Shuffle Along, with a book by Flournoy Miller and Aubrey Lyles, music by Eubie Blake, and lyrics by Noble Sissle. “It was the first African-American musical to truly succeed commercially on Broadway”. Langston Hughes, who saw the production, said that Shuffle Along marked the beginning of the Harlem Renaissance. *
  6. 6.  The Supremes debut in Detroit  3 Aug 1959  The Supremes, originally founded as The Primettes in Detroit, Michigan were the most commercially successful of Motown's acts and are, to date, America's most successful vocal group with 12 number one singles on the Billboard Hot 100. At their peak in the mid-1960s, The Supremes rivaled The Beatles in worldwide popularity, and their success made it possible for future African- American R&B and soul musicians to find mainstream success.
  7. 7.  Freedom Riders: Watch the Full Film  The story behind a courageous band of civil rights activists called the Freedom Riders who in 1961 creatively challenged segregation in the American South. freedomriders/watch
  8. 8.  Group singing provided solace for Freedom Riders facing the constant threat of violence. It was also an effective political tool. "Without singing, we would have lost our sense of solidarity“.
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  10. 10.  On the evening of June 11, 1963, President John F. Kennedy made a televised address to the nation in which he outlined a Civil Rights law. JFK had until this point generally treated Civil Rights more as a nuisance than as a worthy cause. But recent police brutality in Birmingham, Alabama—all of it shown on television sets around the nation—had grown too grizzly to ignore. On May 2, Birmingham‟s Commissioner of Public Safety Eugene “Bull” Connor, had sprayed high- power fire hoses and sent attacking German Shepherds at a parade of 1,000 marching schoolchildren singing “We Shall Overcome.” Then on June 11, Governor George Wallace literally blocked the door to his alma mater, the University of Alabama, when it accepted two black students.
  11. 11. We shall overcome, we shall overcome, We shall overcome someday; Oh, deep in my heart, I do believe, We shall overcome someday. The Lord will see us through, The Lord will see us through, The Lord will see us through someday; Oh, deep in my heart, I do believe, We shall overcome someday. We're on to victory, We're on to victory, We're on to victory someday; Oh, deep in my heart, I do believe, We're on to victory someday. We'll walk hand in hand, we'll walk hand in hand, We'll walk hand in hand someday; Oh, deep in my heart, I do believe, We'll walk hand in hand someday. We are not afraid, we are not afraid, We are not afraid today; Oh, deep in my heart, I do believe, We are not afraid today. The truth shall make us free, the truth shall make us free, The truth shall make us free someday; Oh, deep in my heart, I do believe, The truth shall make us free someday. We shall live in peace, we shall live in peace, We shall live in peace someday; Oh, deep in my heart, I do believe, We shall live in peace someday.
  12. 12.  I Have a Dream Speech Martin Luther King's Address at March on Washington August 28, 1963. Washington, D.C. When we let freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, "Free at last! free at last! thank God Almighty, we are free at last!"
  13. 13.  President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the most sweeping civil rights legislation since Reconstruction. The Act prohibits discrimination of all kinds based on race, color, religion or national origin. It also provides the federal government with the power to enforce desegregation.
  14. 14.  The Selma-to-Montgomery March for voting rights ended three weeks--and three events--that represented the political and emotional peak of the modern civil rights movement. On "Bloody Sunday," March 7, 1965, some 600 civil rights marchers headed east out of Selma on U.S. Route 80. They got only as far as the Edmund Pettus Bridge six blocks away, where state and local lawmen attacked them with billy clubs and tear gas and drove them back into Selma. Two days later on March 9, Martin Luther King, Jr., led a "symbolic" march to the bridge. Then civil rights leaders sought court protection for a third, full-scale march from Selma to the state capitol in Montgomery.
  15. 15.  Congress passes the Voting Rights Act of 1965 making it easier for Southern blacks to register to vote. Literacy tests, poll taxes and other such requirements that were used to restrict blacks are made illegal.
  16. 16.  Born Malcolm Little in in 1925, Malcolm was the son of James Earl Little, a Baptist preacher who advocated the black nationalist ideals of Marcus Garvey. Threats from the Ku Klux Klan forced the family to move. In 1931, Malcolm's father was brutally murdered by the white supremacist Black Legion, and Michigan authorities refused to prosecute those responsible. In 1937, Malcolm was taken from his family by welfare caseworkers.  In 1946, at the age of 21, Malcolm was sent to prison on a burglary conviction. It was there he encountered the teachings of Elijah Muhammad, the leader of the Nation of Islam, whose members are popularly known as Black Muslims. The Nation of Islam advocated black nationalism and racial separatism and condemned Americans of European descent as immoral "devils." Muhammad's teachings had a strong effect on Malcolm, who entered into an intense program of self-education and took the last name "X" to symbolize his stolen African identity.  On February 21, 1965, one week after his home was firebombed, Malcolm X was shot to death by Nation of Islam members while speaking at a rally of his organization in New York City.
  17. 17.  Riots break out in a black section of L.A. The riots last from Aug. 11 to Aug. 17, 1965.  In the predominantly black Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles, racial tension reaches a breaking point after two white policemen scuffle with a black motorist suspected of drunken driving. A crowd of spectators gathered near the corner of Avalon Boulevard and 116th Street to watch the arrest and soon grew angry by what they believed to be yet another incident of racially motivated abuse by the police. A riot soon began, spurred on by residents of Watts who were embittered after years of economic and political isolation. The rioters eventually ranged over a 50- square-mile area of South Central Los Angeles, looting stores, torching buildings, and beating whites as snipers fired at police and firefighters. Finally, with the assistance of thousands of National Guardsmen, order was restored on August 16.  The five days of violence left 34 dead, 1,032 injured, nearly 4,000 arrested, and $40 million worth of property destroyed. The Watts riot was the worst urban riot in 20 years and foreshadowed the many rebellions to occur in ensuing years in Detroit, Newark, and other American cities.
  18. 18.  ml?action=1&t=1&islist=false&id=99315652&m=99 312970  Of the many musicians who used their music to advance the cause of civil rights, Nina Simone was one of the most passionate, most outspoken and most gifted. Although many of her civil-rights-era songs had their origins earlier in the 20th century, this song was written in 1967 by noted jazz pianist and educator Dr. Billy Taylor (along with Dick Dallas), and was recorded by Simone that same year. It quickly became one of the musical mainstays of the movement.
  19. 19. Martin Luther King, Jr. at the age of 39, is shot and killed on the balcony outside his hotel room in Memphis. Escaped convict and committed racist James Earl Ray is convicted of the crime.
  20. 20.  Black Panthers, also known as Huey P. Newton, Charles Garry, Armelia Newton, Bobby Seale, James Forman, Bob Avakian, Stokely Carmichael, H. Rap Brown and Ron Dellums speak at Free Huey rally, February 17th, 1968, Oakland Auditorium, Alameda, California. Directed by Sally Pugh, American Documentary Films
  21. 21.  On December 4th, 1969, Chicago police raided Fred Hamptons apartment and shot and killed him in his bed. He was just twenty-one years old. Black Panther leader Mark Clark was also killed in the raid. While authorities claimed the Panthers had opened fire on the police who were there to serve a search warrant for weapons, evidence later emerged that told a very different story: that the FBI, the Cook County states attorneys office and the Chicago police conspired to assassinate Fred Hampton. We speak with attorney Jeffrey Haas, author of The Assassination of Fred Hampton: How the FBI and the Chicago Police Murdered a Black Panther.
  22. 22.  James Brown: Say it loud, I‟m Black and Proud   Sam Cooke: A Change Is Gonna Come   Nina Simone: Mississippi Goddam   Otis Redding: Respect   Marvin Gaye: What‟s Goin‟ on   Gil Scott Heron: The Revolution Will Not Be Televised 
  23. 23.    Shirley Anita St. Hill Chisholm was an American politician, educator and author. She was a Congresswoman, representing New York's 12th District for seven terms from 1969 to 1983. In 1968, she became the first African-American woman elected to Congress. On January 23, 1972, she became the first major party African-American candidate for President of the United States. She received 152 first-ballot votes at the 1972 Democratic National Convention
  24. 24.  Soul Train, the first black-oriented music variety show ever offered on American television, is one of the most successful weekly programs marketed in first run syndication and one of the longest running syndicated programs in American television history.
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  26. 26.  Overriding President Reagan's veto, Congress passes the Civil Rights Restoration Act, which expands the reach of non-discrimination laws within private institutions receiving federal funds.
  27. 27.  After two years of debates, vetoes and threatened vetoes, President Bush reverses himself and signs the Civil Rights Act of 1991, strengthening existing Civil Rights laws and providing for damages in cases of intentional employment discrimination.
  28. 28.  The first race riots in decades erupt in south- central Los Angeles after a jury acquits four white police officers for the videotaped beating of Rodney King.  Twbqk  XiuS4
  29. 29.  Senator Edward Kennedy (D-MA) introduces the Civil Rights Act of 2008. Some of the proposed provisions include ensuring that federal funds are not used to subsidize discrimination and holding employers accountable for age discrimination.
  30. 30. Although the election of President Barack Obama was an achievement, it does not put an end to the movement. There’s been a lot of racism directed at our president. Racism is just one of many forms of oppression that continues. Below is a link to a list of music, new and old, inspired by the Civil Rights Music: -mix-songs-inspired-by-the-civil-rights-movement
  31. 31. Racism increased slightly since Obama’s election WASHINGTON — Racial attitudes have not improved in the four years since the United States elected its first black president, an Associated Press poll finds, as a slight majority of Americans now express prejudice toward blacks whether they recognize those feelings or not. Those views could cost President Barack Obama votes, the survey found, though the effects are mitigated by some people's more favorable views of blacks. Racial prejudice has increased slightly since 2008 whether those feelings were measured using questions that explicitly asked respondents about racist attitudes, or through an experimental test that measured implicit views toward race without asking questions about that topic directly. In all, 51 percent of Americans now express explicit anti-black attitudes, compared with 48 percent in a similar 2008 survey. When measured by an implicit racial attitudes test, the number of Americans with anti-black sentiments jumped to 56 percent, up from 49 percent during the last presidential election. "As much as we'd hope the impact of race would decline over time ... it appears the impact of anti- black sentiment on voting is about the same as it was four years ago," said Jon Krosnick, a Stanford University professor who helped develop the survey. Most Americans expressed anti-Hispanic sentiments, too. In an AP survey done in 2011, 52 percent of non-Hispanic whites expressed anti-Hispanic attitudes. That figure rose to 57 percent in the implicit test. The survey on Hispanics had no past data for comparison. The surveys were conducted with researchers from Stanford University, the University of Michigan and NORC at the University of Chicago.  * f588703949d8.html
  32. 32. Brother Ali - Uncle Sam Goddamn Dead Prez: Police State Dead Prez: All Power To The People Part DEAD Prez: PROPAGANDA Lupe Fiasco: Words I Never Said Immortal Technique : Point of No Return 2pac: Changes 2Pac: Letter to the President Bob Marley: Get up Stand Up
  33. 33.  Npr.og    History of Spirituals:    (New World Records is a record label based in New York City specializing in American music).  An Introduction to America‟s Music 