Metadata Ownership   & Metadata Rights                       Introduction by Jane GreenbergTim Elfenbein, Will Midgeley, E...
Overview ➡ Will Midgley           (presented by Jane Greenberg)           Copyright 101 ➡ Emily Roscoe         Metadata & ...
Overview ➡ Jane Greenberg
IntroductionCan (or when) may metadata be considered acommodity, product, or intellectual creation?Who owns metadata? What...
What is metadata?Author, number of pages, etc. or somethinglarger?
What is copyrightable expression?•   Google PageRank?•   Netflix "suggestions for you" algorithm?•   WorldCat record?•   F...
Metadata as Intellectual Property• Intellectual property made possible through  legal rights for creators of intellectual ...
Is Metadata Copyrightable?• In Feist Publications v. Rural Telephone  Service, Supreme Court rejected “sweat of  the brow”...
Who Owns Metadata?• Producers of metadata are often taxpayer-    funded (e.g. Library of Congress, individual    libraries...
When Might Rights Issues Apply toMetadata?                SkyRiver v. OCLC• SkyRiver is a for-profit company providing    ...
When Might Rights Issues Apply toMetadata?             OCLC v. Library Hotel• Library Hotel (www.libraryhotel.com) used   ...
Drawbacks of Open Metadata• "Loss of potential attribution" and "loss of  potential income" (Oomen and Baltussen)     OCL...
Benefits of Open Metadata• Driving users to your content• Stimulating collaboration• Enabling new scholarship that can onl...
Copyright 101 ➡ Emily Roscoe
Provided Protections• Title 17, United States Code (U.S.C.)• Protects authors of “original works of  authorship” (publishe...
Limitations on Author RightsExemptions for copyright liability  • Fair Use        The purpose and character of the use   ...
Copyright Points to Remember• Copyright secured automatically, though  registration provides added protection• Works consi...
Who is Author?In the case of works made for hire, theemployer and not the employee is consideredto be the author. Section ...
Case Law: Claims of Meta[data]Rights ViolationsTrademark violation claims in meta tags (HTML)  •   PLAYBOY ENTERPRISES INC...
Metadata & Policy ➡ Chelcie Rowell
Survey of Metadata Reuse Policies•   University of Pittsburgh institutional repository•   University of Edinburgh institut...
Common Features of MetadataReuse PoliciesAccess:•   Anyone has right to access metadataRe-use:•   Non-profit users have un...
OCLCs "Community Norms"•   Based on Open Data Commons Attribution License•   Established through collective process among ...
OCLC Community Norms: Acceptable Usesof WorldCat Metadata•   Incorporating into local library catalogs•   Supporting patro...
OCLC Community Norms: DiscouragedUses of WorldCat Metadata•   unauthorized distribution of OCLC log-ins, passwords•   mass...
Case Study: Duke University Press ➡ Tim Elfenbein
Duke University PressNon-Profit Scholarly PublisherMedium-sized university press digitizing its book and  journal backlist...
Taxonomy StrategiesCommercial Metadata ServicesJoseph Busch: Ex-President of ASIS, Ex-Board Member of  Dublin Core Metadat...
TEMISSemantic Content Enrichment PlatformMetadata extraction, semantic annotation, classificationand clustering, facet and...
DUP’s Options for Metadata DevelopmentCreate and maintain our own taxonomy • Pros – Best fit for content, possible competi...
Case Study: Open Bibliographic Data ➡ Chelcie Rowell
Open Knowledge Foundation:Principles of Open Bibliographic DataExplicit and robust license statementRecognized waiver or l...
JISC Open Bibliographic Data GuideOne of the possibilities that open bibliographic dataoffers is the chance for libraries ...
JISC Open Bibliographic Data Guide:Building Business CasesWHY? Core rationale is about discoverabilityand gaining in credi...
JISC Open Bibliographic Data Guide:Pathways to Added Value
JISC Open Bibliographic Data Guide:Pathways to added value
Richard Wallis Reflects on OCLCsRelease of WorldCat as Linked Data1. Hundreds of millions of items2. Used Schema.org vocab...
WorldCat Record for Harry Potterand the Deathly Hallows
Summary of ODC-BY License Terms
Harvard Bibliographic Data Set"The accessibility of the entire set of data foreach item will, we hope, spur imaginative us...
Within hours of release, one userdeveloped his own search interface
Another user shared a parser forMARC21 data on GitHub
Still another user documented hisefforts to "massage" the data
Harvard Bibliographic Data Exposedvia Digital Public Library of America
Open Bibliographic Data in Balance          Benefits                         Drawbacks in line with mission to          ...
Questions?
ReferencesBueno, Carlos. A parser for the Harvard Library Bibliographic Dataset.   https://github.com/aristus/copymine-har...
ReferencesOpen Bibliographic Working Group of the Open Knowledge Foundation. Principles on   Open Bibliographic Data. http...
ReferencesUniversity of Pittsburgh. D-Scholarsip@Pitt metadata policy for information describing   items in the repository...
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Metadata Ownership & Metadata Rights

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Co-presented for the course INLS 720: Metadata Architectures and Applications at UNC SILS. Subsequently, we also presented at the February 2013 meeting of the UNC Scholarly Communications Working Group. This presentation covered copyright in the context of metadata re-use, plus two case studies (one examining Duke University Press and the other examining open bibliographic data).

Metadata Ownership & Metadata Rights

  1. 1. Metadata Ownership & Metadata Rights Introduction by Jane GreenbergTim Elfenbein, Will Midgeley, Emily Roscoe, Chelcie Rowell, & Jessica Wood UNC Scholarly Communications Working Group 13 February 2013
  2. 2. Overview ➡ Will Midgley (presented by Jane Greenberg) Copyright 101 ➡ Emily Roscoe Metadata & Policy ➡ Jessica Wood (presented by Chelcie Rowell) Case Study: Duke University Press ➡ Tim ElfenbeinCase Study: Open Bibliographic Data ➡ Chelcie Rowell
  3. 3. Overview ➡ Jane Greenberg
  4. 4. IntroductionCan (or when) may metadata be considered acommodity, product, or intellectual creation?Who owns metadata? What are the rightsissues that surround metadata? How, why, orwhen, might rights issues apply?
  5. 5. What is metadata?Author, number of pages, etc. or somethinglarger?
  6. 6. What is copyrightable expression?• Google PageRank?• Netflix "suggestions for you" algorithm?• WorldCat record?• Flickr tags?
  7. 7. Metadata as Intellectual Property• Intellectual property made possible through legal rights for creators of intellectual products: copyrights, patents, trademarks, trade secrets, etc. Purpose: “to promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries”• Can’t own facts, however
  8. 8. Is Metadata Copyrightable?• In Feist Publications v. Rural Telephone Service, Supreme Court rejected “sweat of the brow” doctrine  Result: collections of facts are not copyrightable; intellectual product must contain modicum of creativity for protection  Copyright section of U.S. Code also states that “compilations” can be sufficiently original to secure copyright
  9. 9. Who Owns Metadata?• Producers of metadata are often taxpayer- funded (e.g. Library of Congress, individual libraries uploading their records to OCLCs WorldCat, informatics staff at government agencies and lab)• Can metadata be “owned”? Is it more like a fact about the world, or a creative expression?
  10. 10. When Might Rights Issues Apply toMetadata? SkyRiver v. OCLC• SkyRiver is a for-profit company providing bibliographic services.• Sued OCLC for overcharging libraries who switched to SkyRiver for cataloging• SkyRiver’s catalog is made up of LoC records (public domain), British Library, member libraries, etc.• Suit mostly about pricing, but SkyRiver wants access to OCLC database
  11. 11. When Might Rights Issues Apply toMetadata? OCLC v. Library Hotel• Library Hotel (www.libraryhotel.com) used Dewey Decimal Classification theme• DDC owned (trademarked and partially copyrighted) by OCLC• OCLC sued over trademark infringement• Issue here was more over metadata’s “brand” than the actual scheme itself
  12. 12. Drawbacks of Open Metadata• "Loss of potential attribution" and "loss of potential income" (Oomen and Baltussen)  OCLC v. Library Hotel an example of first  SkyRiver v. OCLC an example of second
  13. 13. Benefits of Open Metadata• Driving users to your content• Stimulating collaboration• Enabling new scholarship that can only be done with open data• Allowing creation of new services for discovery• "increas[ing] relevance to digital society" (Oomen and Baltussen)
  14. 14. Copyright 101 ➡ Emily Roscoe
  15. 15. Provided Protections• Title 17, United States Code (U.S.C.)• Protects authors of “original works of authorship” (published and unpublished) to do and authorize others to do the following:  Reproduce  Distribute copies  Perform (audio works)  Display (visual works)  Prepare derivative works
  16. 16. Limitations on Author RightsExemptions for copyright liability • Fair Use  The purpose and character of the use  The nature of the copyrighted work  The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole  The effect of the use upon the potential market for, or value of, the copyrighted work • Compulsory License
  17. 17. Copyright Points to Remember• Copyright secured automatically, though registration provides added protection• Works consisting entirely of information that is common property and containing no original authorship are NOT protected by copyright• Copyright protection expires
  18. 18. Who is Author?In the case of works made for hire, theemployer and not the employee is consideredto be the author. Section 101 of the copyrightlaw defines a “work made for hire” as: • a work prepared by an employee within the scope of his or her employment; or • a work specially ordered or commissioned for use
  19. 19. Case Law: Claims of Meta[data]Rights ViolationsTrademark violation claims in meta tags (HTML) • PLAYBOY ENTERPRISES INC v. WELLES (279 F3d 796 (2002))  "Nominative use"Copyright violation claims in page number use • Matthew Bender & Co Inc v. West Publishing Co (158 F. 3d 674 (1998))
  20. 20. Metadata & Policy ➡ Chelcie Rowell
  21. 21. Survey of Metadata Reuse Policies• University of Pittsburgh institutional repository• University of Edinburgh institutional repository• University of Surrey institutional repository• National Estuarine Research Reserve System• IMLS Digital Collections & Content project
  22. 22. Common Features of MetadataReuse PoliciesAccess:• Anyone has right to access metadataRe-use:• Non-profit users have unrestricted permission• For-profit users must request permission In both cases of re-use, metadata creator must receive an attribution.
  23. 23. OCLCs "Community Norms"• Based on Open Data Commons Attribution License• Established through collective process among OCLC member institutions• Adopted by Harvard Library and others• Includes recommended language for contracts with outside IT vendors Policy rationale regarding use of WorldCat bibliographic data: "to encourage the widespread use of WorldCat bibliographic data while also supporting the ongoing and long-term viability and utility of WorldCat and of WorldCat-based services"
  24. 24. OCLC Community Norms: Acceptable Usesof WorldCat Metadata• Incorporating into local library catalogs• Supporting patron research, facilitating resource discovery• Verifying bibliographic data on local holdings• Granting access to non-OCLC members for personal, scientific, or institutional research/re-use• Transferring WorldCat data on local holdings to outside vendors providing services to the ones local institution These norms were established by the OCLC Cooperative, last updated on June 2, 2010.
  25. 25. OCLC Community Norms: DiscouragedUses of WorldCat Metadata• unauthorized distribution of OCLC log-ins, passwords• mass downloads of WorldCat records w/o prior permission from OCLC• mass distribution of data directly from WorldCat to non- members w/o prior permission from OCLC Significant violations of the Community Norms, if reported, will be sent to the Global Council and the OCLC Board of Trustees for arbitration. (OCLC 2012-2013 Board of Trustees)
  26. 26. Case Study: Duke University Press ➡ Tim Elfenbein
  27. 27. Duke University PressNon-Profit Scholarly PublisherMedium-sized university press digitizing its book and journal backlist, as well as producing new digital contentWishes to integrate journal and book content on a common platform, and improve findability and searchabilityHuge influx of newly digitized content with little metadata
  28. 28. Taxonomy StrategiesCommercial Metadata ServicesJoseph Busch: Ex-President of ASIS, Ex-Board Member of Dublin Core Metadata InitiativeServices: Taxonomy construction, workshops, training, and project definition (taxonomy governance)Proposal: Review of DUP content, stakeholder interviews, identify priority content metadata and controlled vocabulary, develop and test content taxonomy, establish governance guidelines, provide trainingCost: Mid-five figures
  29. 29. TEMISSemantic Content Enrichment PlatformMetadata extraction, semantic annotation, classificationand clustering, facet and filter builder, etc. Uses existing orcreates new/enhanced domain taxonomies.
  30. 30. DUP’s Options for Metadata DevelopmentCreate and maintain our own taxonomy • Pros – Best fit for content, possible competitive edge • Cons – Expensive and time-consuming, not interoperable, only first stepOpt-in to semantic tagging initiative with other publishershosted by HighWire • Pros – Access to larger corpus for taxonomy development, interoperable metadata formats, off-loading labor • Cons – Expensive, loss of DUP focus and control, could get squished by the needs of bigger players
  31. 31. Case Study: Open Bibliographic Data ➡ Chelcie Rowell
  32. 32. Open Knowledge Foundation:Principles of Open Bibliographic DataExplicit and robust license statementRecognized waiver or licenseDefined by the Open DefinitionExplicitly placed in the Public Domain via ODC-PDDL or CC0
  33. 33. JISC Open Bibliographic Data GuideOne of the possibilities that open bibliographic dataoffers is the chance for libraries and indeed anyone toreuse the data to build innovative services forresearchers, teachers, students and librarians.—Andy McGregor, JISC Programme Manager
  34. 34. JISC Open Bibliographic Data Guide:Building Business CasesWHY? Core rationale is about discoverabilityand gaining in credibility the more ourresources are discovered from ‘out there’(through such as Google) and not from ‘in here’(through the local OPAC).HOW? Cost effectively and while maintainingcontrol at the point of release of data.
  35. 35. JISC Open Bibliographic Data Guide:Pathways to Added Value
  36. 36. JISC Open Bibliographic Data Guide:Pathways to added value
  37. 37. Richard Wallis Reflects on OCLCsRelease of WorldCat as Linked Data1. Hundreds of millions of items2. Used Schema.org vocabulary3. Human-readable and machine-readable (RDFa) on WorldCat.org4. OCLC cooperating with other communities to extend Schema.org for libraries5. Open Data Commons license (ODC-BY)6. First step in an ongoing process!
  38. 38. WorldCat Record for Harry Potterand the Deathly Hallows
  39. 39. Summary of ODC-BY License Terms
  40. 40. Harvard Bibliographic Data Set"The accessibility of the entire set of data foreach item will, we hope, spur imaginative usesthat will find new value in what libraries know."Mary Lee KennedySenior Associate Provost for the Harvard Library
  41. 41. Within hours of release, one userdeveloped his own search interface
  42. 42. Another user shared a parser forMARC21 data on GitHub
  43. 43. Still another user documented hisefforts to "massage" the data
  44. 44. Harvard Bibliographic Data Exposedvia Digital Public Library of America
  45. 45. Open Bibliographic Data in Balance Benefits Drawbacks in line with mission to  no going back – once disseminate knowledge data is released difficult & enable innovation to withdraw or re- publicity & status for first release with more movers stringent terms creates opportunities for  open-ended third parties to develop commitment of time & services that may drive resources traffic back to library and library holdings
  46. 46. Questions?
  47. 47. ReferencesBueno, Carlos. A parser for the Harvard Library Bibliographic Dataset. https://github.com/aristus/copymine-harvard#readme.DPLA API query for items contributed by Harvard.http://api.dp.la/v0.03/item/?filter=dpla.contributor:harvard_edu.Eaton, Alf. Working With the Harvard Library Bibliographic Data Set. HubLog. http://hublog.hubmed.org/archives/001953.html.Gray, Jonathan. Europeana opens up data on 20 million cultural items. Guardian DataBlog. http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2012/sep/12/ europeana-cultural-heritage-library-europe.Harvard Library Bibliographic Dataset. http://openmetadata.lib.harvard.edu/bibdata.IMLS Digital Collections and Content Project. Metadata Reuse Policy. http://imlsdcc.grainger.illinois.edu/MetadataReuse.JISC Open Bibliographic Data Guide. http://obd.jisc.ac.uk/.National Estuarine Research Reserve System Centralized Data Management Office. NOAA Ocean and Coastal Resource Management Policy for the NERRS National Monitoring Program. http://cdmo.baruch.sc.edu/data/policy.cfm.
  48. 48. ReferencesOpen Bibliographic Working Group of the Open Knowledge Foundation. Principles on Open Bibliographic Data. http://openbiblio.net/principles/.Open Data Commons Attribution License. http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/by/.Record Use Policy Council. WorldCat Rights and Responsibilities for the OCLC Cooperative. http://www.oclc.org/worldcat/recorduse/policy/default.htm.Schwartz, Meredith. Harvard releases metadata into public domain. The Digital Shift. http://www.thedigitalshift.com/2012/04/metadata/harvard-releases-metadata-into- public-domain/.Shieber, Stuart. The new Harvard Library open metadata policy. The Occasional Pamphlet on Scholarly Communication. http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/pamphlet/2012/04/27/the-new-harvard-library-open- metadata-policy/.University of Edinburgh. DataShare data policy for full-text and other full data items and metadata policy for information describing items in the repository. http://www.ed.ac.uk/schools-departments/information-services/services/research- support/data-library/data-repository/service-policies/data-metadata-policy.
  49. 49. ReferencesUniversity of Pittsburgh. D-Scholarsip@Pitt metadata policy for information describing items in the repository. http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/policies.html.University of Surrey. Surrey Research Insight (SRI) Open Access metadata policy for information describing items in the repository and access and reuse policy for full-text and other full data items. http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/policies.html.Wallis, Richard. OCLC WorldCat Linked Data Release – Significant in Many Ways. Data Liberate. http://dataliberate.com/2012/06/oclc-worldcat-linked-data-release -significant-in-many-ways/."What Does One Do With Millions of MARC records?" http://gavialib.com/2012/05/what- does-one-do-with-millions-of-marc-records/.WorldCat Record for Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/155131850.

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