Speaking
Definition
What is Speaking?
• Speech is the vocalized form of human
communication
• Speech production takes places in real time
and ...
Coceptualization and Formulation
Conceptualization
Discourse type
Topic
Purpose
Formulation
Making strategic
choices: synt...
! Note that:
• In English, utterances tend to have a two-part
structure:
Topic + comment
Articulation
• It involves the use of the organs of speech to
produce sounds.
• Sounds are produced in a continuous stream...
Self-monitoring & repair
• It is a process that happens concurrently with
the stages of conceptualization, formulation
and...
Automaticity
Conceptualizing
Formulating
Articulating
Monitoring
Use of
prefabricated
chunks
Add-on
strategies
(chaining
together of
short phrases)
Fluency
Mean that a speaker’s attention...
! Note that:
Being under pressure or tired will affect a
speaker’s performance
! Note that:
• Speaking is like any other skill such as driving
or playing a musical instrument: the more you
practice, th...
Fluency
• Is fluency the ability to speak fast?
• It’s not only about speed, but pausing is
equally important.
• However, ...
Fluency
Another factor in the
perception of fluency is the
lenght of the run (number of
syllables between pauses)
Race-cal...
Interaction and turn-taking
• Sometimes, a face-to-face dialogue is involved
in speaking.
• Turn-taking is negotiated beca...
Discourse markers
• That reminds me. (I’m continuing with the same topic)
• By the way… (I’m indicating a topic change)
• ...
Paralinguistics and sociocultural
knowledge
Genre knowledge
By its purpose:
• Transactional: for the purpose of conveying or exchanging
specific information
• Interpe...
Genre knowledge
PURPOSE PARTICIPATION PLANNING
Airport
anouncements
Transactional non-interactive planned
Sports
commentar...
The difference between written and
spoken discourse
Dell Hymes:
Speaking
Proficiency
Grammatical
competence
Sociolinguistic
competence
Discourse
competence
Strategic
competen...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Speaking presentation

707 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
707
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
12
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Speaking presentation

  1. 1. Speaking Definition
  2. 2. What is Speaking? • Speech is the vocalized form of human communication • Speech production takes places in real time and it is linear, i.e. utterance by utterance. • Planning is severly limited, therefore, it is the hardest of all four skills.
  3. 3. Coceptualization and Formulation Conceptualization Discourse type Topic Purpose Formulation Making strategic choices: syntax, vocabulary Beginning, middle and end
  4. 4. ! Note that: • In English, utterances tend to have a two-part structure: Topic + comment
  5. 5. Articulation • It involves the use of the organs of speech to produce sounds. • Sounds are produced in a continuous stream, some sounds merge with others. Handbag, baked beans • Continual changes in loudness, pitch direction, tempo and pausing serve to organize the sounds into meaninful words and utterances. • Proficients speakers produce 15 phonemes a second.
  6. 6. Self-monitoring & repair • It is a process that happens concurrently with the stages of conceptualization, formulation and articulation. • Self-monitoring may result in a slowing down, pausing and backtracking or rephrasing of an utterance.
  7. 7. Automaticity Conceptualizing Formulating Articulating Monitoring
  8. 8. Use of prefabricated chunks Add-on strategies (chaining together of short phrases) Fluency Mean that a speaker’s attentional resources are thinly streched
  9. 9. ! Note that: Being under pressure or tired will affect a speaker’s performance
  10. 10. ! Note that: • Speaking is like any other skill such as driving or playing a musical instrument: the more you practice, the more likely you are to be able to chunk small units into larger ones.
  11. 11. Fluency • Is fluency the ability to speak fast? • It’s not only about speed, but pausing is equally important. • However, frequent pausing is a sure sign of a struggling speaker. • Natural sounding pauses| are those that occur at the ontersection of clauses, | or after groups of words that form a meaningful unit.|
  12. 12. Fluency Another factor in the perception of fluency is the lenght of the run (number of syllables between pauses) Race-callers and auctioners rather than constructing from scratch,use prefabricated chunks Pause fillers: uh, um, er Repeats • Long runs • Use of prefabricated chunks • Production strategies
  13. 13. Interaction and turn-taking • Sometimes, a face-to-face dialogue is involved in speaking. • Turn-taking is negotiated because speakers are familiar with the rules and skills of turn- taking. Two rules are to be followed:  Long silences are to be avoided  Listen when other speakers are speaking
  14. 14. Discourse markers • That reminds me. (I’m continuing with the same topic) • By the way… (I’m indicating a topic change) • Well, anyway.. (I’m returning to the topic) • Like I say… (I’m repeating what I said before) • Yes, but.. (I’m indicating a difference of opinion) • Yes, no I know.. (I’m indicating agreement with a negative idea) • Uh-huh… (I’m listening)
  15. 15. Paralinguistics and sociocultural knowledge
  16. 16. Genre knowledge By its purpose: • Transactional: for the purpose of conveying or exchanging specific information • Interpersonal: For the purpose of maintaining social relationships By its interaction: • Non-inteactive or interactive By its planning: • Planned or unplanned
  17. 17. Genre knowledge PURPOSE PARTICIPATION PLANNING Airport anouncements Transactional non-interactive planned Sports commentary Transactional non-interactive Unplanned Job interview Transactional Interactive (partly) planned Service encounter Transactional Interactive Unplanned Joke telling Interpersonal (partly) interactive (partly) planned Leaving a voice- mail message Transactional or interpersonal non-interactive Unplanned Casual conversation interpersonal interactive Unplanned
  18. 18. The difference between written and spoken discourse
  19. 19. Dell Hymes: Speaking Proficiency Grammatical competence Sociolinguistic competence Discourse competence Strategic competence

×