Criteria for selecting material
The role of the teacher
Student´s role as readers
*Reading for survival. Serves immediate
needs or wishes. (ladies, gentlemen and
*Reading for learning. Serves the wider
role of extending our general knowledge of
*Reading for pleasure. It is done for its
own sake. We don´t have to do it.
CRITERIA FOR SELECTING
1.-Text as vehicle for teaching
language structure and
These are sometimes justified for
classroom use on the grouds that
they are not primarly for reading
But are exponents of the stucture
of the language
2.-Texts which teach language
*We select text, not for any distinctive
linguistic features, but because they
*This is a line with the principle that
language is developed in the course of
3.- Texts which offer high-interest
The text must be interesting enough
for the learner to want to read it.
*Readability (level, vocabulary,
*Suitability of content (according to
**Exploitability. (leads to a range of
Authentic texts are vital because
*Offer a real context
*Transmit TL cuture
*Prepare students to read outside
*Intend to communicate meaning
* They are socioculturally recognizable
communicative events; they have different
organizational and grammatical features.
Ballad, novel, epic poem, menu, shopping
list, tutorial, medical examination, joke,
They are typified by:
*Syntax and lexis
THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER
*Reading involves skills that students must
learn for themselves.
When teaching reading a trouble is that it
is easy to give too much help or help of the
wrong king, so the question is.
What sort of help should we give?
*Provide suitable text
*Provide activities that will focus the
student´s attention on the text
THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER
*Teacher must choose appropriate
reading for students
*Teachers may “reconstitute” an
authentic text by adding features
*Teachers need to test and assess
students’ reading ability in some
*Teachers provide appropriate pre-
reading activities and ask the right
TEACHER ´S RESPONSIBILITY
*Finding out what students can do and
what they cannot.
*Working out a programme aimed at
giving them the skills they need.
*Choosing tasks and activities to
develop the required skills.
*Choosing suitable text to work on.
*Make sure that everyone improves
steadily according to his own
THE STUDENT´S ROLE AS
*He should make sense of the text for
*From the beginning, he must do for
himself everything that he is
capable of doing.
*The most basic thing he has to do is
to associate the printed marks on the
page with the spoken language he
How do Teachers test reading?
*By making students read an
authentic text that is unfamiliar but
similar to texts practiced in the
What should be tested?
*Strategy use & comprehension.
Which factors do we take into account
when testing reading?
* Informational background
*Metacognition (how reader
* Intent (why we read the text)
* Reader’s language proficiency
READING TEST SHOULD
* Assess student schemata as a factor in
* Include items that reveal a grasp of
* Enable students to demonstrate their
view of textual organization
*Ascertain the reasoning behind the
* Enable students to demonstrate a grasp
of the text’s cultural and authorial
SETTING THE TASK
*Choose text of appropriate lenght.
*Avoid text made up of information
which may be part of candidates general
*Assuming that it is only reading ability
which is being tested, do not choose
texts which are too cultural laden.
*Do not use texts which students have
The aim must be to write items which
will measure the ability in which we
*Multiple choice. The candidate
provides evidence of successful
reading by making marks againts one
out of a number of alternatives.
*Unique answer. Here there is only
one possible correct response.
*Short answer. When unique answer
items are not possible , short answer
itemas may be used.
*Guided shot answer. In such cases
the desired response can be obtained
by framing the item, candidates have
only to complete sentences.
• Wallace, Catherine. Reading. 1992. Oxford: Oxford University
• * Hughes, Arthur. Testing for language teachers. U.K. Cambridge
Univ. Press. 1989.
• Barnett, Marva A. More than meets the eye: foreign language
reading. 1989. New Jersey: Center for Applied Linguistics &
Prentice-Hall, Inc. 233pp.
• * Nuttal, Christine. Teaching reading skills in FL. Great Britain.
* Swaffar, Janet K. & Arens Katherine M. & Byrnes, Heidi.
Reading for meaning: An Integrated Approach to Language
Learning. 1991. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 264pp.