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MCAAAE 2011 Talk

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My talk at the 2011 Midwest Conference of Andean and Amazonian Archaeology and Ethnohistory.

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MCAAAE 2011 Talk

  1. 1. Health and Labor at Armatambo, Perú <ul><li>How Bioarchaeology Contributes to the Study of Social Complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Keith Chan </li></ul><ul><li>University of Missouri - Columbia </li></ul>
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Background: Bioarchaeology and the study of social complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotheses: Does state organization benefit health and command more labor? </li></ul><ul><li>Methods: Testing the hypotheses in the central Andes </li></ul><ul><li>Results: State level societies reverse a trend in worsening health seen in non-state societies </li></ul>
  3. 3. Bioarchaeology <ul><li>The study of human remains in an archaeological context </li></ul><ul><li>Some disease processes leave indicators on the structure of bones and teeth </li></ul><ul><li>The frequency or prevalence of these indicators can be compared among groups </li></ul>Burns KR. 1999. Forensic Anthropology Training Manual. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
  4. 4. Bioarchaeology 2 <ul><li>How does bioarchaeology help us study complex societies? </li></ul><ul><li>Taps into another line of evidence: the actual people who lived in the past </li></ul><ul><li>Lets us explore how health varies with social complexity </li></ul>
  5. 5. Indicators of Health and Activity <ul><li>Several indicators show subadult health, when bone is most susceptible to disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cribra orbitalia (CO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Porotic hyperostosis (PH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Periosteal lesions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Degenerative joint disease shows high physical activity in adults </li></ul>
  6. 6. Health Indicators 2
  7. 7. Health Indicators 2 http://people.usd.edu/~archlab/paleopics/metabol/
  8. 8. Health Indicators 2
  9. 9. Health Indicators 2
  10. 10. Bioarchaeology of Complex Societies <ul><li>Research in the forager to agriculturalist transition generally find worsening health </li></ul><ul><li>What about the transition to states and empires? </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe the greater command of labor acted to improve health and increase the population... </li></ul>Image courtesy of the Royal Library (Copenhagen) (Item GKS 2232 4º)
  11. 11. Hypotheses <ul><li>Subadult health in an urban state will be better than in non-states </li></ul><ul><li>Adult activity levels in an urban state will be greater than in non-states </li></ul>
  12. 12. Materials and Methods <ul><li>Setting: Prehistoric Andes </li></ul><ul><li>First-generation state development </li></ul><ul><li>Much comparative material from the Central Coast </li></ul>
  13. 13. Armatambo (Urban State) <ul><li>Prehistoric city </li></ul><ul><li>Key settlement of the Ychsma state </li></ul><ul><li>Late Intermediate Period </li></ul><ul><li>Now part of modern Lima, Perú </li></ul>
  14. 14. Comparative Sample <ul><li>Comparative sample was compiled from previously-published studies </li></ul><ul><li>Paloma (fishing village) </li></ul><ul><li>Cardal (beginning social stratification) </li></ul><ul><li>Villa El Salvador/Tablada De Lurín (localized polity) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Armatambo Data Collection <ul><li>Data collection took place in 2007 and 2009 with the help of two field schools I co-taught </li></ul><ul><li>We worked at the Museo Nacional de Arqueología, Antropología, e Historia in Lima </li></ul><ul><li>Total number of individuals in the Armatambo collection: 55 (41 adults, 14 subadults) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Expectations <ul><li>Compared to collections from non-states, the Armatambo collection should show: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less cribra orbitalia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less porotic hyperostosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer subadult periosteal lesions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compared to collections from non-states, the Armatambo collection should show more adult DJD </li></ul>
  17. 17. Results (Subadult Health) Subadult CO
  18. 18. Results (Subadult Health) Subadult PH
  19. 19. Results (Subadult Health) 4 Subadult Periosteal Lesions
  20. 20. Results (Adult Health) 2 Cervical Vertebra DJD
  21. 21. Results (Adult Health) 2 Thoracic Vertebra DJD
  22. 22. Results (Adult Health) 2 Lumbar Vertebrae DJD
  23. 23. Conclusion 1 <ul><li>Question: How is health related to social complexity? </li></ul><ul><li>Expected: Better subadult health and more adult activity in the state compared to non-states </li></ul><ul><li>Tested Using: bioarchaeology of Andean skeletal population </li></ul>
  24. 24. Conclusion 2 <ul><li>Findings: The Armatambo collection reversed a trend of worsening subadult chronic anemia with increasing social complexity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signs of chronic bacterial infections showed no clear pattern with social complexity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Armatambo adults had more thoracic DJD than non-state adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maybe related to labor? </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Images courtesy of the Royal Library (Copenhagen) (Item GKS 2232 4º)
  26. 26. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Alejandra Gudino and the MCAAAE organizers </li></ul><ul><li>My dissertation committee: Bob Benfer, Debby Pearsall, Ed Brent, Ray Wood, and Chris VanPool </li></ul><ul><li>Kathy Forgey and Dawn Sturk </li></ul><ul><li>Life Sciences Fellowship at MU </li></ul><ul><li>El Museo Nacional de Arqueología, Antropología e Historia </li></ul><ul><li>Maritza Perez </li></ul><ul><li>Mercedes Delgado </li></ul><ul><li>Kate Pechenkina, Joe Vradenburg, Matt Rhode, and Ahmad Abu Dalou </li></ul><ul><li>My field school students: 2007: Andrea, Beckie, Crystal, Fernando, and Ruth; 2009: Brandi, Brian, Cari, Chelsea, Clarissa, Heather, Jessica, Justin, Kelly, and Tia </li></ul>Thanks to:

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