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Meats

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Understanding meat cookery.

Meats

  1. 1. 1 Meat 9/5/2013BAC 102 Culinary foundation Level II (T) Chef Mehernosh Dhanda
  2. 2.  What is meat?  Structure of muscle  Composition of muscle  “Green meat”  Aging methods  Understanding basic cuts  Bone structure  Parameters for meat selection  Cooking meats  Doneness  Storage of meats 9/5/2013 2 BAC 102 Culinary foundation Level II (T)
  3. 3. Meat is muscle tissue. It is the flesh of domestic & wild game animals. 3 9/5/2013BAC 102 Culinary foundation Level II (T)
  4. 4. Muscle fiber – long, thin muscle fibers bound in bundles. Connective tissue • Meats are high in connective if they come from muscles that are more exercised • Older animals meat has higher connective tissue • The types of connective tissue are  Collagen (white)  Elastin (yellow) 9/5/2013BAC 102 Culinary foundation Level II (T) 4
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  6. 6.  Muscle composition gives meat its characteristic appearance  Muscle tissue is approximately: • 72% water • 20% protein • 7% fat • 1% minerals  Marbling (fat) adds tenderness and flavor to meat and is a principal factor in meat quality 6 9/5/2013BAC 102 Culinary foundation Level II (T)
  7. 7. When animals are slaughtered, their muscles are soft and flabby. Within 6-24 hours, rigor mortis sets in, causing the muscles to contract and stiffen. Rigor mortis dissipates in 48 – 72 hours while under refrigeration. All meats are allowed to age or rest long enough for rigor mortis to dissipate. 7 9/5/2013BAC 102 Culinary foundation Level II (T)
  8. 8. Aging is done to bring out the texture and flavor characteristic of the meat. Wet Aging • Smaller cuts enclosed in Cryovac® (plastic vacuum packs) Dry Aging • Larger cuts of meat exposed to air in controlled conditions. Can lose up to 20% of weight during dry aging. 8 9/5/2013BAC 102 Culinary foundation Level II (T)
  9. 9.  Carcasses The whole animal except head, feet, entrails, and hide (except pork, from which only entrails and head removed)  Partial Carcasses • Sides • Quarters • Foresaddles • Hindsaddles 9/5/2013BAC 102 Culinary foundation Level II (T) 9  Primal or Wholesale Cuts  Fabricated Cuts - Smaller cuts for roasts, steaks, chops, cutlets, stewing meat, and ground meat, or to customer specifications.  Portion-controlled Cuts Cuts ready-to-cook, processed to customer specifications.
  10. 10.  Forequarter • Chuck • Brisket • Shank • Rib • Plate  Hindquarter • Full Loin • Short loin • Sirloin • Flank • Round 9/5/2013BAC 102 Culinary foundation Level II (T) 10
  11. 11. Organ Meats/Offal • Items such as heart, kidney, tongue, tripe, and oxtail are in this category 11 9/5/2013BAC 102 Culinary foundation Level II (T)
  12. 12. 1. Identifying meat cuts 2. Boning and cutting meats 3. Carving cooked meats 12 9/5/2013BAC 102 Culinary foundation Level II (T)
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  15. 15. 1. Consider employee skills: Do you have a person that can break down meats into needed cuts? 2. Menu: Can you use the bones, meat, and trimmings in something else? 3. Storage: Do you have ample refrigeration and freezer space? 4. Cost: Considering labor costs and trim usage, is it overall less expensive to buy larger or more ready-to-use cuts of meat? 15 9/5/2013BAC 102 Culinary foundation Level II (T)
  16. 16.  Specifications are important to a food service operation - they fully describe the item in exact detail: 1. Item name 2. Grade 3. Weight range 4. State of refrigeration 5. Fat limitations 16 9/5/2013BAC 102 Culinary foundation Level II (T)
  17. 17. Tenderizes connective tissue Toughens proteins 9/5/2013BAC 102 Culinary foundation Level II (T) 17
  18. 18.  High heat toughens and shrinks proteins and results in high moisture loss.  Broiling is very fast which is why #1 is not contrary.  Roasts cooked at lower temperatures have better yields.  Because liquid and steam are better conductors than air, moist heat penetrates quickly. 18 9/5/2013BAC 102 Culinary foundation Level II (T)
  19. 19. Remember that connective tissue is highest in muscles that are frequently used. Long, slow cooking tenderizes collagen. 19 9/5/2013BAC 102 Culinary foundation Level II (T)
  20. 20.  Rib and Loin Cuts • Very tender, used for roasts, steaks, and chops  Leg or Round • Less tender and cooked by braising  Chuck or Shoulder • Tougher; generally braised  Shanks, Breast, Brisket, and Flank • Less tender; cooked by moist heat  Ground Meat, Cubed Steaks, and Stew Meat • From any primal cut; cooked by dry or moist heat 20 9/5/2013BAC 102 Culinary foundation Level II (T)
  21. 21.  Barding  Larding 9/5/2013BAC 102 Culinary foundation Level II (T) 21
  22. 22.  Marination  Trussing/tying 9/5/2013BAC 102 Culinary foundation Level II (T) 22
  23. 23. The purpose of searing at high heat is to create desirable flavor and color by browning all sides. 23 9/5/2013BAC 102 Culinary foundation Level II (T)
  24. 24. Some sources say to cook from frozen to avoid “drip loss.” Most meats are thawed first and then prepared. 24 9/5/2013BAC 102 Culinary foundation Level II (T)
  25. 25. The internal temperature will continue to rise after meat is removed from the source of heat Because the exterior is hotter than inside, it will conduct heat to the inside. 25 9/5/2013BAC 102 Culinary foundation Level II (T)
  26. 26.  Dry heat - the meat is done when the proteins have reached the desired degree of coagulation • Red meat (beef and lamb)  Rare: Brown surface, thin layer of gray, red interior  Medium: thick layer of gray, pink interior  Well done: Gray throughout • White meat (veal and pork)  From pink to gray-pink to off- white 9/5/2013BAC 102 Culinary foundation Level II (T) 26
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  28. 28. 9/5/2013BAC 102 Culinary foundation Level II (T) 28 Meat Rare Medium Well Done Beef 130oF(54oC) 140-145oF(60-63oC) 160oF(71oC) Lamb 130oF(54oC) 145oF(63oC) 160oF(71oC) Veal -- 145-150oF(63-66oC) 160oF(71oC) Pork -- -- 165-170oF(74-77oC)
  29. 29.  Meat is done when tissues are broken down enough for the meat to be palatable. Most of the time the meat is well done. • Low heat, no higher than simmering, is essential to avoid toughening protein in moist-cooked meat 9/5/2013BAC 102 Culinary foundation Level II (T) 29
  30. 30. Meat products are highly perishable and potentially hazardous, so temperature control is highly essential. Fresh meats should be stored at 32° to 36° F. Frozen meats should be stored at 0° to 20° F and well wrapped to prevent freezer burn. Use as quickly as possible. 30 9/5/2013BAC 102 Culinary foundation Level II (T)
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