10 chapter ten

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  • Hello and welcome to AtTheInstitute.com’s online preparatory course for the National Restaurant AssociationServSafe Manager Certification Exam.
  • In this section (section 10) we will cover Sanitary Facilities & Equipment
  • After this section you should be able to:Understand and explain how kitchen layout can affect food safety.Know the appropriate construction materials and certifications for use in foodservice operations.List the required parts of a handwashing station.Understand and explain safety hazards caused by utilities.List facility lighting requirements.Describe the correct methods of equipment installation and maintenance.And describe the safety hazards caused by utilities.
  • Here are some definitions you may find helpful.Coving – Coving is a curved, sealed edge between a floor and wall. It reduces sharp corners and eases floor cleaning.A Cross-connection – is a physical link between a source of dirty water and the safe water supply.Backflow– is the reverse flow of contaminants into a potable water supply caused by negative pressure within the water system.A Vacuum Breaker is a device used to prevent backflow.And a Grease trap– is a device used to collect grease – Grease traps keep grease out of the plumbing system where it would otherwise build up within and block pipes.
  • As we learned in the previous section, sanitary facility design and equipment are one of the basic prerequisites for any food safety system. Design will affect how safe your food is by aiding ease of TCS food time-temperature control and ease of cleaning. A well designed facility has the following features:Good Workflow: Layout of the facility should be logical to ensure that food spends as little time in the temperature danger zone as possible. For example. Refrigerated storage should be adjacent to the receiving area so that food is put away quickly.Reduction of cross-contamination: Equipment placement and installation prevents splashing or spilling from one piece of equipment to another.And Accessibility for cleaning: Equipment and facilities should be easy to staff to clean.
  • Prior to beginning any new construction of or remodeling to a foodservice facility, you may be required to obtain approval from your local regulatory authority. Even if your local regulatory authority does not require this approval, you may want to have plans reviewed anyway. This review (whether required or voluntary) ensures that:Your design meets regulatory requirements.It ensures a safe flow of food.And it may even save you time and money.
  • The materials used in your operation play a part in keeping food safe. When choosing materials for things like floors, walls, ceilings and doors, the most important factor to consider is how easy the surface is to clean and maintain.Floors should be smooth, nonabsorbant, easy-to-clean, and durable. Coving should be present to aid in cleaning the floor. (Required in Food prep, storage, dishwashing, walk-in coolers/freezers, dressing and restroom areas.)Walls, ceilings and doors should be smooth, nonabsorbant and easy to clean. These will be light in color to make spotting dirt and dust easier.
  • As with materials selection, equipment selection plays a role in keeping food safe. Equipment must meet certain standards depending upon whether it is used for food contact or not. Make sure equipment meets the following criteria:Food Contact Surfaces must be designated “safe for contact with food”, easy to clean, durable and resistant to damage such as pitting, chipping, crazing (spider cracks) scratching, scarring, distortion and decomposition.Nonfood Contact Surfaces: Smooth, nonabsorbant and corrosion resistant, easy to clean and free of ledges, protrusions and crevices.Always choose equipment bearing either NSF or Underwriters Laboratories UL/ANSI Classified and UL:EPH listed marks.Both UL & NSF create standards and test and approve foodservice equipment.
  • How equipment is installed makes a difference. Stationary equipment must be easy to clean and clean around. When installing equipment, follow manufacturers guidelines and the following general rules:Floor-mounted Equipment should be installed on legs at least six inches off the floor. (Another option may be to seal it to a masonry base.)Put Tabletop Equipment on legs, at least four inches high (or sealed it to the countertop).Finally, make sure you seal any gaps between equipment and surrounding countertops and walls.Once equipment is properly installed, it must be maintained regularly by qualified individuals.
  • Dishwashers vary in size, style and sanitizing method. Whether choosing a chemical sanitizing dishwasher or a heat-sanitizing machine, consider these guidelines:Information about the correct machine settings should be posted on the machine.The machine’s thermometer should be easy to read and in increments of no grater than 2 degrees F.
  • Handwashing stations make it easy for staff to wash hands often. These stations are required in restrooms and food prep, service and dishwashing areas. They must have the following requirements:Hot & Cold running water. (it must reach at least 100 ° F.).Soap (liquid, bar or powder).A way to dry hands: Either single-use, disposable paper towels or an air dryer.A garbage container if disposable towels are used.Signage: A sign telling employees to wash hands before returning to work.
  • Water in foodservicefacilities is used for cooking, cleaning and drinking. It must be safe (potable) and may come from the following sources:Approved public water mains.Water transport vehicles.Closed, portable water containers.Or a private water source such as a well. (Generally, these sources must be tested at least annually.)Check with your local regulatory authority regarding any additional requirements.All plumbing must be installed correctly by licensed plumbers.
  • Regardless of where your water comes from, you should know how to prevent plumbing issues that could affect food safety. Plumbing that is not installed or maintained correctly can lead to unsafe and potable water mixing.A link between a safe (potable) water source and dirty water is known as a cross-connection. Cross-connections are the greatest challenge to water safety. Unsafe water can come from drains, sewers, and other sources. When a cross-connection occurs, the risk is that backflow ( a reverse flow of contaminants into a safe water supply) can happen.To prevent backflow, use one of the following:An air gap: An air gap is a space that separates a water supply outlet from a potentially contaminated source. (Picture the space between a tap head and the top of a sink.) It is the only certain way to prevent backflow.Or a Vacuum Breaker: A vacuum breaker is an approved device in plumbing that prevents backflow.
  • A buildup of grease in plumbing systems is another problem common to foodservice operations. Grease condensation in pipes is prevented by installing a grease trap. Make sure yours is installed by a lecensed plumber and then cleaned regularly to prevent a backup in the system.Overhead wastewater pipes and sprinkler systems can leak and cause contamination. Even potable water pipes can cause problems due to condensation. Make sure pipes are maintained in such a ways as to prevent leaks and condensation.A facility’s drain system must be able to handle all wastewater. Sewage and drainage systems must be adequate so as not to lead to back-ups. A back up of sewage into an operation is grounds for immediate closure.
  • Good lighting has many benefits. It helps improve work habits and makes it easier to clean as well as providing a safer environment. Lighting requirements are expressed in units called foot-candles or lux. Refer to the following lighting requirements for your facility.50 Foot-Candles (540 lux): in Prep areas.20 Foot-Candles (215 lux): in Handwashing areas, wait stations, utensil storage, buffets, salad bars and restrooms.10 Foot-Candles (108 lux): in Dry Storage, Walk-in coolers and Dining areas.Ensure that all lights have shatter-resistant bulbs or protective covers to help prevent physical contamination by broken glass.
  • Ventilation improves the air inside a facility. It removes odors, gases, grease, dirt and mold from the air. It must be well designed and maintained and requires regular cleaning. If ventilation is poor, a build-up of grease and condensation will build up on walls and ceilings. Ventilation must be designed so that grease condensation does not drip into food or onto equipment. As a manager, it is your responsibility for making sure that ventilation systems meet all regulatory requirements.
  • Garbage can attract pests and contaminate food, equipment and utensils if not handled correctly. To control hazards posed by garbage, ensure:Garbage is removed from prep areas as quickly as possible.Clean garbage containers frequently.Make sure containers are leak proof, waterproof and pest proof.Line containers with plastic or wet-strength paper liners.Place outdoor containers on a smooth, nonabsorbant surface. Make sure they are kept covered and have their drain plugs in place.
  • Poor maintenance can cause food safety problems in your operation. To prevent them, do the following:The operation is cleaned regularly.All building systems work and are maintained.Make sure the building is sound and in good repairControl pests.Maintain the exterior of the building, including any patios and parking areas.
  • All of the information provided can be found in The National Restaurant Association’s, ServSafe Essentials, 5th Edition with 2009 FDA Food Code Updates.For more information check them out online at www.servsafe.com.
  • Please take this opportunity to complete the review questions for this section before continuing on to section Three of the course.For AtTheInstitute.com, this is [your name]. Feel free to send us comments and feedback by email at feedback@AtTheInstitute.com.
  • 10 chapter ten

    1. 1. ServSafe™ Exam Prep & Study Guide AtTheInstitute.com
    2. 2. 10. Sanitary Facilities & Equipment AtTheInstitute.com
    3. 3. Section Goals• Understand and explain • List facility lighting how kitchen layout can requirements. affect food safety. • Describe the correct• Know the appropriate methods of equipment construction materials installation and and certifications for use maintenance. in foodservice operations. • Understand and explain• List the required parts of safety hazards caused by a handwashing station. utilities.• Understand and explain safety hazards caused by utilities.
    4. 4. Definitions• Coving – A curved, sealed edge between a floor and wall. It reduces sharp corners and eases floor cleaning.• Cross-connection – A physical link between dirty and and safe water supply.• Backflow– The reverse flow of contaminants into a potable water supply caused by negative pressure within the water system.• Vacuum Breaker – A device used to prevent backflow.• Grease trap– A device used to collect grease – keeping it out of a plumbing system where it can build up within and block pipes.
    5. 5. Facility DesignGood facility design will keep food safe and facility quick and easy cleaning. A well designed facility has the following features:• Good Workflow: Layout of the facility is logical and ensures that food spends as little time in the temperature danger zone as possible. For example. Refrigerated storage should be adjacent to the receiving area so that food is put away quickly.• Reduction of cross-contamination: Equipment placement and installation prevents splashing or spilling from one piece of equipment to another.• Accessibility for cleaning: Equipment and facilities should be easy to clean.
    6. 6. Design ReviewBefore starting any new construction or large remodeling project, you must obtain approval from the regulatory authority. This review ensures that: • Designs meet regulatory requirements. • Ensures a safe flow of food. • May save you time and money.
    7. 7. Interior Materials Selection• Floors should be smooth, nonabsorbant, easy-to- clean, and durable. Coving should be present to aid in cleaning the floor. (Required in Food prep, storage, dishwashing, walk-in coolers/freezers, dressing and restroom areas.)• Walls, ceilings and doors should be smooth, nonabsorbant and easy to clean. These will be light in color to make spotting dirt and dust easier.
    8. 8. Equipment SelectionEquipment must meet certain standards depending upon whether it is used for food contact or not. Make sure equipment meets the following criteria:• Food Contact Surfaces: Safe for contact with food, easy to clean, durable and resistant to damage such as pitting, chipping, crazing (spider cracks) scratching, scarring, distortion and decomposition.• Nonfood Contact Surfaces: Smooth, nonabsorbant and corrosion resistant, easy to clean and free of ledges, protrusions and crevices.Choose equipment bearing either NSF or UL:EPH listed marks. These organizations create standards and test and approve foodservice equipment.
    9. 9. Installing and Maintaining EquipmentStationary equipment must be easy to clean and clean around. When installing equipment, follow manufacturers guidelines and the following:• Floor-mounted Equipment: On legs at least six inches off the floor. (Another option may be to seal it to a masonry base.)• Tabletop Equipment: At least four inch legs (or sealed to the countertop).Make sure to seal any gaps between equipment and surrounding countertops and walls.
    10. 10. Dishwashing MachinesDishwashers vary in size, style and sanitizing method. Whether choosing a chemical sanitizing dishwasher or a heat-sanitizing machine, consider these guidelines:• Settings: Information about the correct machine settings should be posted on the machine.• Thermometer: The machine’s thermometer should be easy to read and in increments of no grater than 2 degrees F.
    11. 11. Handwashing StationsHandwashing stations make it easy for staff to wash hands often. They must have the following items:• Hot & Cold running water. (must reach at least 100 ° F.).• Soap (liquid, bar or powder).• A way to dry hands: Either single-use, disposable paper towels or an air dryer.• A garbage container if disposable towels are used.• Signage: A sign telling employees to wash hands before returning to work.
    12. 12. Water and PlumbingWater in the facility is used for cooking, cleaning and drinking. It must be safe (potable) and may come from the following sources:• Approved public water mains.• Water transport vehicles.• Closed, portable water containers.• A private water source or well. (Must be tested at least annually.)All plumbing must be installed correctly by licensed plumbers.
    13. 13. Cross-connection & Backflow PreventionA cross connection is the greatest challenge to water safety. It is a link between sources of safe and dirty water. This can come from drains, sewers and other wastewater sources. A cross connection is dangerous because backflow (reverse flow of contaminants into safe water) may occur. To prevent backflow you should:• Use an air gap: An air gap is a space that separates a water supply outlet from a potentially contaminated source. (Picture the space between a tap head and the top of a sink.) It is the only certain way to prevent backflow.• Use a Vacuum Breaker: A vacuum breaker is an approved device in plumbing that prevents backflow.
    14. 14. Other Plumbing Considerations• Grease condensation in pipes is prevented using a grease trap. Make sure yours is cleaned regularly to prevent a backup in the system.• Overhead pipes must be shielded and maintained so as to prevent leaking.• Sewage and drainage systems must be adequate so as not to lead to back-ups. A back up of sewage into an operation is grounds for immediate closure.
    15. 15. Lighting Requirements• 50 Foot-Candles (540 lux): in Prep areas.• 20 Foot-Candles (215 lux): in Handwashing areas, wait stations, utensil storage, buffets, salad bars and restrooms.• 10 Foot-Candles (108 lux): in Dry Storage, Walk-in coolers and Dining areas.
    16. 16. VentilationVentilation removes odors, gases, grease, dirt and mold from the air. It must be well designed and maintained and requires regular cleaning.If ventilation is poor, a build-up of grease and condensation will build up on walls and ceilings.
    17. 17. GarbageGarbage can attract pests and contaminate food, equipment and utensils. Ensure that:• Garbage is removed from prep areas as quickly as possible.• Clean garbage containers frequently.• Make sure containers are leak proof, waterproof and pest proof.• Line containers with plastic or wet-strength paper liners.• Place outdoor containers on a smooth, nonabsorbant surface. Make sure they are kept covered and have their drain plugs in place.
    18. 18. Maintaining The FacilityPoor maintenance can cause food safety problems in your operation. Ensure that:• The operation is cleaned regularly.• All building systems work and are maintained.• Make sure the building is sound and in good repair• Control pests.• Maintain the exterior of the building, including any patios and parking areas.
    19. 19. ServSafe Essentials ISBN: 0135026520 http://nraef.orghttp://www.servsafe.com
    20. 20. AtTheInstitute.comfeedback@AtTheInstitute.com

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