Fungi World

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  • Introduction to Mycology...very interesting
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Fungi World

  1. 2. <ul><li>Nutritional mode </li></ul><ul><li>Structural organization </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>EUKARYOTIC </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophic: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>saprobes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>parasites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>symbiotic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decomposers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>most are multicellular </li></ul><ul><li>CW: CHITIN </li></ul>
  3. 5. <ul><li>extracellular digestion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>secrete enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>STRUCTURES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hyphae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cell wall made of chitin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>septa/cross walls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>incomplete or perforated </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mycelium </li></ul></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>reproduce asexually </li></ul><ul><ul><li>spores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hyphae fragmentation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>reproduce sexually </li></ul><ul><ul><li>spores (sporangiophores) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyphae (- and +) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 9. <ul><li>↑ genetic diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Spores and hyphae </li></ul><ul><li>SYNGAMY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmogamy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>karyogamy </li></ul></ul>
  6. 12. <ul><li>BASED on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>modes of reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>basic structure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PHYLUM Oomycota(FUNGUS-LIKE) </li></ul><ul><li>PHYLUM Zygomycota </li></ul><ul><li>PHYLUM Ascomycota </li></ul><ul><li>PHYLUM Basidiomycota </li></ul><ul><li>PHYLUM Deuteromycota </li></ul>
  7. 13. <ul><li>oomycetes/water molds and downy mildews </li></ul><ul><li>finely branched </li></ul><ul><li>single-celled filaments </li></ul>
  8. 14. <ul><li>cell wall not chitin </li></ul><ul><li>protist-like fungi </li></ul><ul><li>diploid stage is dominant </li></ul><ul><li>Coenocytic/ aseptate </li></ul>
  9. 17. <ul><li>e.g. water molds (saprobes or parasites of fish) </li></ul>
  10. 21. <ul><li>Zygomycetes /conjugation fungi </li></ul><ul><li>zygosporangia </li></ul><ul><li>1,050 spp. </li></ul><ul><li>Saprobic </li></ul><ul><li>Parasitic </li></ul><ul><li>many are important symbionts of vascular plants </li></ul>
  11. 22. <ul><li>hyphae aseptate </li></ul><ul><li>asexual reproduction: spore formation </li></ul><ul><li>sexual reproduction: conjugation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(+/- mating strains) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>zygospore </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. molds: Rhizopus (black bread mold) </li></ul>
  12. 24. <ul><li>Rhizoids </li></ul><ul><li>Stolons </li></ul><ul><li>Sporangiophores </li></ul><ul><li>spores </li></ul>
  13. 29. <ul><li>ascomycetes/sac fungi </li></ul><ul><li>largest group of fungi (30,000 spp.) </li></ul><ul><li>produces two kinds of spores: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sexual spores  ascospores (inside the ascus) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>asexual spores  conidia (naked) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 31. conidia ASCUS
  15. 33. <ul><li>STRUCTURES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>asci </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ascocarp </li></ul></ul><ul><li>hyphae septate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>multinucleate (perforated) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>most saprobic </li></ul><ul><li>some pathogens of plants (Dutch elm disease, chestnut blight, ergot) </li></ul>
  16. 35. ASCUS
  17. 36. <ul><li>e.g. yeasts (unicellular) cup fungi </li></ul><ul><li>powdery mildews </li></ul><ul><li>blue and green molds </li></ul><ul><li>Ophiostoma ulmi (causes Dutch elm disease) </li></ul><ul><li>Microsphaera (powdery mildew) </li></ul>
  18. 38. truffles MORELS Tubifer melanosporum
  19. 40. <ul><li>basidiomycetes/club fungi </li></ul><ul><li>25,000 spp. </li></ul><ul><li>sexual reproduction  basidiospores formed on club-shaped basidia </li></ul>
  20. 41. <ul><li>some produce asexual spores  conidia </li></ul><ul><li>hyphae septate </li></ul><ul><li>fruiting body  basidiocarp </li></ul><ul><li>diverse in shape/structure </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. mushrooms </li></ul>
  21. 42. <ul><li>Toadstools </li></ul><ul><li>puffballs </li></ul>
  22. 43. <ul><li>bracket fungi/shelf fungi ( Ganoderma ) </li></ul><ul><li>coral fungi ( Clavulina ) </li></ul>
  23. 44. <ul><li>earthstar ( Geastrum ) </li></ul><ul><li>stinkhorns </li></ul><ul><li>rusts (parasites of wheat, barley, oats & other crop plants) </li></ul><ul><li>smuts (attack corn, wheat, oats, barley and rye) </li></ul>
  24. 45. <ul><li>stalk and cap </li></ul><ul><li>annulus </li></ul><ul><li>gills </li></ul>
  25. 47. Primary mycelia Secondary
  26. 48. <ul><li>imperfect fungi </li></ul><ul><li>sexual reproductive phase </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Penicillium (produces the antibiotic penicillin) </li></ul><ul><li>ringworm </li></ul><ul><li>athletes foot </li></ul>

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