Open Science - Free Science for a free Society

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Presentation of the concept of open science with open data, open access, open source, open peer review, open methodology and open educational resources. It also shows the status quo internationally and in Austria.

Event: Open Commons Congress 2013 in Linz.
Video: https://www.dorftv.at/video/7150
Blog: http://openscienceasap.org/stream/2013/07/12/open-science-praesentation-am-open-commons-kongress-2013/

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Open Science - Free Science for a free Society

  1. 1. Stefan Kasberger @stefankasberger OPEN SCIENCE Free Science for a free Society Go to https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ for licence details.
  2. 2. What is Open Science?
  3. 3. Problem! Research Question Methods Hypothesis Test Hypothesis Experiments Case Studies Publish Peer Review „Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.“ – Wikipedia Science
  4. 4. Open Definition: “A piece of data or content is open if anyone is free to use, reuse, and redistribute it — subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and/or share-alike.” Openness
  5. 5. by Attribution nd No Derivations nc Non-Commercial sa Sharealike
  6. 6. Open Definition compatible: ● Creative Commons by ● Creative Commons by-sa ● Creative Commons Zero (Public Domain) by Attribution sa Sharealike
  7. 7. Pillars of Open Science Research 4 pillars, as defined by Kraker et al. (2011): ● Open Data ● Open Source ● Open Access ● Open Methodology ● + Open Peer Review Education ● Open Educational Resources
  8. 8. Open Data ● Data: files and databases ● Corporations, Administration ● Science: raw data, processed data, Linked Open Data ● Problem: Privacy data.gv.at
  9. 9. Free & Open Source ● Free & Open: source code and file formats ● Licenses: GPLv3 & Free-BSD ● Science: utilize software and write source code reputation→ ● Pioneering in collaborative working, versioning, agile project management
  10. 10. Open Methodology ● Science as a Practice ● Open Culture and open licenses: Get out of the ivory tower ● Science: process of open innovation, gets attention, early feedback mistakes can be recognized and→ corrected earlier ● Problems: effort, no standards, process varies depending on discipline
  11. 11. Open Methodology Data Code Inquiry PublishResearch Content HypothesisProblem Paper Publikation Content Content Experiments Case-Studies etc. Review Typesetting literature Methods
  12. 12. Open Peer Review ● Ensure quality of scientific work ● Blinded / Unblinded ● Staged? 1.Editors 2.Comments 3.Web ● Altmetrics
  13. 13. Open Access Publications ● Free ● Machine readable ● Online ● Immediately arXiv.org
  14. 14. Open Access Research Financed publicly Scientific publication Proporty of publisher Library Financed publicly public „The 15 year old pupil Jack Andraka invented a new method for early diagnosis of cancer: 26.000 times cheaper, 90 percent more efficient and 168 times faster than any other method.“ – Welt
  15. 15. Open Access ● Gold Way: primary publication ● Green Way: parallel publication (embargo?) or self-archiving
  16. 16. Developments ● In recent years: enormous increase in turnover of publishers, e.g.: Elsevier, Nature, Springer 2012 & 2013 ● The Cost of Knowledge by Tim Gowers ● Institutes: Harvard, TU München ● Governments: USA, UK, EU (Horizon2020)
  17. 17. Open Access Austria ● FWF: Open Access Policy ● OANA: Open Access Network Austria 2 top-ranked Journals are Open Access ● Viennna Yearbook of Population Research ● Living Review in European Governance
  18. 18. Open Educational Resources ● Free teaching and learning materials: books, images, web, software, data, operating systems, etc. ● TU Graz: OER Strategy We need free people & technologies for the future!
  19. 19. Why Open Science?
  20. 20. Reproducibility Reinhart & Rogoff ● Excel-Sheet error ● 3 countries not included in model „A Bayer Healthcare team published work showing that only 25% of the academic studies they examined could be replicated. (Prinz et al. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 10, 712, 2011)“ – Forbes
  21. 21. Efficiency ● Minimize redundancies ● Re-usability of data, code and content ● More innovation ● Faster dissemination
  22. 22. "However, several critics emphasize that one person can never possess enough knowledge in order to judge complex situations expediently, and that it may be more appropriate to use the collective wisdom of crowds." – Hayek, F. von: Die Anmaßung von Wissen Complexity / Interdisciplinarity
  23. 23. "It‘s always the other author(s) who publishes too much and “pollutes“, “floods”, “eutroficates” the literature, never me." (Braun and Zsindely 1985) Technology
  24. 24. Do It Yourself
  25. 25. → Open Science as basis Crowdsourcing ● GalaxyZoo ● Crowdfunding ● Sciencestarter Citizen Science
  26. 26. Do Open Science on your own Research ● Publish papers, dissertation, etc. ● Release data and source code Academia: course works, bachelor and master theses Workshops & Hackathons Politically: universities, student unions, departments, etc. → Open Science Projekt & OKFN Österreich
  27. 27. Open Science Working Group @ OKFN Austria ● Today: meeting of working group 6pm Wissensturm Linz ● Focus 2013: Open Access ● Open Science Manifesto ● Hackathons ● MeetUp's : every four weeks ● okfn.at/arbeitsgruppen/open-science-austria/ ● Open Science Mailingliste!
  28. 28. https://github.com/skasberger/ OpenScience-presentations Knowledge is shareable!
  29. 29. All trademarks and product names mentioned in this presentation are registered trademarks of the particular producer respectively corporation. Slide 1: Open Science Logo ● Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Science_Logo.jpg ● Author: G.emmerich ● license: CC BY-SA unported Slide 3: Quote Science @ Wikipedia ● Source: Wikipedia ● URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science Slide 4: Quote Open Definition ● Source: OKFN ● URL: http://opendefinition.org/ Slide 4: Tin Can Bild ● Source: http://www.goldenswamp.com/2008/08/21/science-online-and-open-begins-to-replace-crazy-old-model/ ● Author: Golden Swamp ● License: CC BY US Slide7: 4 Pillars of Open Science by Kraker et. al (2011) ● Source: The case for an open science in technology enhanced learning; Kraker; Derick Leony; Wolfgang Reinhardt; Günter Beham; International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning (IJTEL), Vol. 3, No. 6, 2011 ● URL: http://know-center.tugraz.at/download_extern/papers/open_science.pdf Sources & References
  30. 30. Slide 8: Linzer Harbor (background) ● Data Source: CC-BY-AT-3.0: Stadt Linz - data.linz.gv.at Slide 9: Linux Tux Logo ● Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tux.svg ● Author: Larry Ewing, Simon Budig, Anja Gerwinski ● License: The copyright holder of this file allows anyone to use it for any purpose, provided that the copyright holder is properly attributed. Redistribution, derivative work, commercial use, and all other use is permitted. Slide 9: Quantum GIS Logo ● Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:QGis_Logo.png ● Author: Anita Graser ● License: CC BY-SA unported Slide 9: Open Source Logo ● Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Opensource.svg ● Author: Converted from file at http://opensource.org/trademarks by en:User:Brighterorange ● License: CC BY 2.5 Generic Slide 14: Quote Jack Andraka ● Source: Die Welt ● URL: http://www.welt.de/gesundheit/article113630589/15-jaehriger-Schueler-revolutioniert-die-Krebsmedizin.html Slide 18: Open Educational Resources Logo ● Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Global_Open_Educational_Resources_Logo.svg ● Author: Jonathasmello ● License: CC BY 3.0 unported Slide 20: Quote Forbes ● Source: Forbes ● URL: http://www.forbes.com/sites/brucebooth/2012/09/26/scientific-reproducibility-begleys-six-rules/ Slide 20: Photo Carmen M. Reinhart ● Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Carmen_M._Reinhart_-_World_Economic_Forum_Annual_Meeting_2011.jpg ● Author: World Economic Forum ● License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Generic Slide 20: Research Cycle ● Source: http://ency.cl/File:Research_cycle.png ● Author: Cameron Neylon ● License: CC BY 2.0 Generic
  31. 31. Slide 21: Plasma Lamp (background) ● Source: http://opencage.info/pics.e/large_9892.asp ● Author: opencage.info ● License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Generic Slide 22: Linked Open Data Graph ● Source: https://secure.flickr.com/photos/okfn/5684212276 ● Author: OKFN ● License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Generic Slide 23: IBM Blue Gene Supercomputer ● Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:IBM_Blue_Gene_P_supercomputer.jpg ● Author: Argonne National Laboratory's Flickr page ● License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Generic

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