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Open Science - Freie Wissenschaft für eine freie Gesellschaft

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Präsentation zu Open Science mit Open Data, Open Access, Open Peer Review, Open Source, Open Methodology und Open Educational Resources. Weiters gibt es einen Überbick über Aktivitäten international und in Österreich.

Veranstaltung: Open Commons Kongress 2013 in Linz.
Video: https://www.dorftv.at/video/7150
Blog: http://openscienceasap.org/stream/2013/07/12/open-science-praesentation-am-open-commons-kongress-2013/

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Open Science - Freie Wissenschaft für eine freie Gesellschaft

  1. 1. Stefan Kasberger @stefankasberger OPEN SCIENCE Freie Wissenschaft für eine freie Gesellschaft Schau auf https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ für Lizenz Details.
  2. 2. Was ist Open Science?
  3. 3. Problem! Recherche Fragestellung Methoden Hypothese Hypothese prüfen Experimente Fallstudien Publizieren Peer Review „Forschung ist die Suche nach neuen Erkenntnissen sowie deren systematische Dokumentation und Veröffentlichung […] überwiegend als Wissenschaftliche Arbeit in relevanten Fachzeitschriften und/oder bei Tagungen.“ – Wikipedia Science
  4. 4. Open Definition: “A piece of data or content is open if anyone is free to use, reuse, and redistribute it — subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and/or share-alike.” Openness
  5. 5. by Namensnennung nd Keine Veränderungen nc Nicht kommerziel sa Sharealike
  6. 6. Open Definition kompatibel: ● Creative Commons by ● Creative Commons by-sa ● Creative Commons Zero (Public Domain) by Namensnennung sa Sharealike
  7. 7. Säulen von Open Science Forschung 4 Säulen definiert nach Kraker et al. (2011): ● Open Data ● Open Source ● Open Access ● Open Methodology ● + Open Peer Review Lehre ● Open Educational Resources
  8. 8. Open Data ● Daten: Dateien und Datenbanken ● Unternehmen, Verwaltung ● Wissenschaft: Rohdaten, prozessierte Daten, Linked Open Data ● Problem: Privacy data.gv.at
  9. 9. Free & Open Source ● Frei & Offen: Quellcode und Dateiformate ● Lizenzen: GPLv3 & Free-BSD ● Wissenschaft: Verwenden von Software und Schreiben von Quellcode Aufmerksamkeit→ ● Vorreiter für kollaboratives Arbeiten, Versionierung, agiles Projektmanagement
  10. 10. Open Methodology ● Science as a Practice ● Offene Kultur und offene Lizenzen: Raus aus dem Elfenbeinturm ● Wissenschaft: offener Innovationsprozess, zieht Aufmerksamkeit an, frühes Feedback Fehler können→ früher erkannt und korrigiert werden ● Probleme: Aufwand, keine Standards, Ablauf sehr unterschiedlich je nach Disziplin
  11. 11. Open Methodology Data Code Recher- chieren PublizierenForschen Content HypotheseProblem Paper Publikation Content Content Experimente Fallstudien etc. Review Typesetting Literatur Methoden
  12. 12. Open Peer Review ● Qualitätssicherung der wiss. Arbeit ● Blinded / Unblinded ● Gestaffelt? 1.EditorInnen 2.Kommentare 3.Web ● Altmetrics
  13. 13. Open Access Publikation ● Frei ● Maschinen lesbar ● Online ● Sofort arXiv.org
  14. 14. Open Access Forschung Öffentlich finanziert Wiss. Publikation Eigentum des Verlages Bibliothek Öffentlich finanziert Öffentlichkeit „Der 15 Jahre alte Schüler Jack Andraka hat eine neue Methode zur Krebsfrüherkennung erfunden: 26.000 Mal günstiger, 90 Prozent zuverlässiger und 168 Mal schneller als jedes andere Verfahren.“ – Welt
  15. 15. Open Access ● Goldene Weg: primäre Veröffentlichung ● Grüne Weg: Parallele Veröffentlichung (Embargo?) oder Selbstarchivierung
  16. 16. Entwicklungen ● Enorme Umsatzsteigerungen bei Verlagen in den letzten Jahren, z. B.: Elsevier, Nature, Springer 2012 & 2013 ● The Cost of Knowledge von Tim Gowers ● Institute: Harvard, TU München ● Regierungen: USA, UK, EU (Horizon2020)
  17. 17. Open Access Österreich ● FWF: Open Access Policy ● OANA: Open Access Network Austria 3 top-ranked Journals sind Open Access ● Viennna Yearbook of Population Research ● Living Review in European Governance
  18. 18. Open Educational Resources ● Freie Lehr- und Lernmaterialien: Bücher, Bilder, Web, Software, Daten, Betriebssysteme!, etc. ● TU Graz: OER Strategie Wir brauchen freie Menschen & Technologien für die Zukunft!
  19. 19. Warum Open Science?
  20. 20. Reproduzierbarkeit Reinhart & Rogoff ● Excel Sheet Fehler ● 3 Staaten nicht in Model „A Bayer Healthcare team published work showing that only 25% of the academic studies they examined could be replicated. (Prinz et al. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 10, 712, 2011)“ – Forbes
  21. 21. Effizienz ● Redundanzen minimieren ● Wiederverwendbarkeit von Daten, Code und Inhalten ● Mehr Innovation ● Verbreitet sich schneller
  22. 22. "However, several critics emphasize that one person can never possess enough knowledge in order to judge complex situations expediently, and that it may be more appropriate to use the collective wisdom of crowds." – Hayek, F. von: Die Anmaßung von Wissen Komplexität / Interdisziplinarität
  23. 23. "It‘s always the other author(s) who publishes too much and “pollutes“, “floods”, “eutroficates” the literature, never me." (Braun and Zsindely 1985) Technologie
  24. 24. Do It Yourself
  25. 25. → Open Science ist Grundlage Crowdsourcing ● GalaxyZoo ● Crowdfunding ● Sciencestarter Citizen Science
  26. 26. Open Science selber machen Forschung ● Publikationen veröffentlichen: Paper, Doktorarbeit, etc. ● Daten und Sourcecode veröffentlichen Studium: Seminar, Bakk.- und Masterarbeiten Workshops Hackathons Politisch: Universitäten, ÖH, StV. Etc. → Open Science Projekt & OKFN Österreich
  27. 27. Open Science Working Group @ OKFN Österreich ● Heute: Arbeitsgruppentreffen 18h Wissensturm Linz ● Schwerpunkt 2013: Open Access ● Open Science Manifesto ● Hackathons ● Treffen: ungefähr alle 4 Wochen ● okfn.at/arbeitsgruppen/open-science-austria/ ● Open Science Mailingliste!
  28. 28. https://github.com/skasberger/ OpenScience-presentations Wissen ist teilbar!
  29. 29. Alle in dieser Präsentation genannten Marken und Produktnamen sind eingetragene Marken-/Warenzeichen der jeweiligen Hersteller beziehungsweise Unternehmen. Folie 1: Open Science Logo ● Quelle: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Science_Logo.jpg ● Urheber: G.emmerich ● Lizenz: CC BY-SA unported Folie 3: Zitat Forschung @ Wikipedia ● Quelle: Wikipedia Deutschland ● URL: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forschung Folie 4: Zitat Open Definition ● Quelle: OKFN ● URL: http://opendefinition.org/ Folie 4: Tin Can Bild ● Quelle: http://www.goldenswamp.com/2008/08/21/science-online-and-open-begins-to-replace-crazy-old-model/ ● Urheber: Golden Swamp ● Lizenz: CC BY US Folie 7: 4 Säulen Open Science nach Kraker et. al (2011) ● Quelle: The case for an open science in technology enhanced learning; Kraker; Derick Leony; Wolfgang Reinhardt; Günter Beham; International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning (IJTEL), Vol. 3, No. 6, 2011 ● URL: http://know-center.tugraz.at/download_extern/papers/open_science.pdf Quellen & Referenzen
  30. 30. Folie 8: Linzer Hafen (Hintergrundbild) ● Datenquelle: CC-BY-AT-3.0: Stadt Linz - data.linz.gv.at Folie 9: Linux Tux Logo ● Quelle: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tux.svg ● Urheber: Larry Ewing, Simon Budig, Anja Gerwinski ● Lizenz: The copyright holder of this file allows anyone to use it for any purpose, provided that the copyright holder is properly attributed. Redistribution, derivative work, commercial use, and all other use is permitted. Folie 9: Quantum GIS Logo ● Quelle: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:QGis_Logo.png ● Urheber: Anita Graser ● Lizenz: CC BY-SA unported Folie 9: Open Source Logo ● Quelle: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Opensource.svg ● Urheber: Converted from file at http://opensource.org/trademarks by en:User:Brighterorange ● Lizenz: CC BY 2.5 Generic Folie 14: Zitat Jack Andraka ● Quelle: Die Welt ● URL: http://www.welt.de/gesundheit/article113630589/15-jaehriger-Schueler-revolutioniert-die-Krebsmedizin.html Folie 18: Open Educational Resources Logo ● Quelle: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Global_Open_Educational_Resources_Logo.svg ● Urheber: Jonathasmello ● Lizenz: CC BY 3.0 unported Folie 20: Zitat Forbes ● Quelle: Forbes ● URL: http://www.forbes.com/sites/brucebooth/2012/09/26/scientific-reproducibility-begleys-six-rules/ Folie 20: Photo Carmen M. Reinhart ● Quelle: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Carmen_M._Reinhart_-_World_Economic_Forum_Annual_Meeting_2011.jpg ● Urheber: World Economic Forum ● Lizenz: CC BY-SA 2.0 Generic Folie 20: Research Cycle Bild ● Quelle: http://ency.cl/File:Research_cycle.png ● Urheber: Cameron Neylon ● Lizenz: CC BY 2.0 Generic
  31. 31. Folie 21: Plasma Lampe (Hintergrundbild) ● Quelle: http://opencage.info/pics.e/large_9892.asp ● Urheber: opencage.info ● Lizenz: CC BY-SA 2.0 Generic Folie 22: Linked Open Data Graph ● Quelle: https://secure.flickr.com/photos/okfn/5684212276 ● Urheber: OKFN ● Lizenz: CC BY-SA 2.0 Generic Folie 23: IBM Blue Gene Supercomputer ● Quelle: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:IBM_Blue_Gene_P_supercomputer.jpg ● Urheber: Argonne National Laboratory's Flickr page ● Lizenz: CC BY-SA 2.0 Generic

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