Why do birth and death rates differ? Miss Sumner
Why high birth rates? Some religions eg. Roman Catholicism and Islam forbid the use of contraception In many countries where people are subsistence farmers, children are needed to work on the farms. In many countries where there is no state pension, people have many children so they can provide for them in their old age. In places where death rates and infant mortality rates are high, families have large numbers of children to ensure some survive into adulthood.
Why low birth rates? Many women put their careers first, marry later and therefore have less children. Contraception is widely available in MEDC’s- giving people choice about family size. Children are expensive to provide for, many young people have only one child, or none at all. Because of low death rates people in MEDCs need fewer children. They are not needed to work or farms or support the elderly.
Why high death rates? A poor and unvaried diet does not provide essential nutrients. Limited access to health care means even simple illnesses eg. Diarrhoea can be fatal. No access to a clean water supply means that diseases like cholera and typhoid take many lives. Poor sanitation systems again cause disease and illness resulting in a high death rate.
Why low death rates? A well varied diet means people get all the nutrients they need to be healthy Health care facilities in MEDCs are modern and hi-tech meaning many diseases can now be cured. Access to a clean water supply means that diseases like cholera and typhoid have died out. Modern sanitation systems mean that the threat of disease is minimal therefore the death rate is reduced.