Rice Farming


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Rice Farming

  1. 1. Rice Farming
  2. 3. Rice Farming <ul><li>Rice is one of the world’s staple (main) foods </li></ul><ul><li>Across huge areas of South East Asia millions (billions?) of people depend on rice farming for survival </li></ul><ul><li>We will focus on intensive subsistence rice farming </li></ul>
  3. 4. Ideal Rice Growing Conditions: <ul><li>High temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Large amounts of water </li></ul><ul><li>Flat land </li></ul><ul><li>Fertile soil </li></ul>
  4. 5. Where in the world? <ul><li>Tropical areas have high temperatures and high precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal lowlands and river floodplains are good areas </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes terraces can be built to allow farming in hilly areas </li></ul>
  5. 6. Where in the world?
  6. 7. You can grow rice on hillsides . . .                                                      
  7. 8. . . . but this is a more common rice farming landscape.
  8. 9. The Rice Farming Landscape <ul><li>Traditional rice cultivation involves flooding the fields (sometimes called padis ) for part of the year. </li></ul><ul><li>This leads to the creation of a very distinctive landscape: </li></ul><ul><li>The padis are usually fairly small </li></ul><ul><li>Earth embankments, called bunds, surround the padis </li></ul><ul><li>Canals and rivers criss cross the land, carrying water to and from the padis </li></ul><ul><li>Houses/settlements are often located on embankments or raised ‘islands’ </li></ul>
  9. 10. The Farming Year: <ul><li>A.Gradually drain the fields so rice can ripen </li></ul><ul><li>B. Repair bunds and canals </li></ul><ul><li>C. Harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>D. Cultivation of off-season crops eg. vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>E. Weeding and thinning rice </li></ul><ul><li>F. Transplant the seedlings into the padis </li></ul><ul><li>G. Flood and plough the padis </li></ul><ul><li>H. Animals graze in the fields (eat stubble and fertilize soil) </li></ul><ul><li>I. Plant seeds in nursery beds </li></ul>
  10. 11. The Farming Year: <ul><li>1. Repair bunds and canals </li></ul><ul><li>2. Plant seeds in nursery beds </li></ul><ul><li>3. Flood and plough the padis </li></ul><ul><li>4. Transplant the seedlings into the padis </li></ul><ul><li>5. Weeding and thinning rice </li></ul><ul><li>6. Gradually drain the fields so rice can ripen </li></ul><ul><li>7. Harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>8. Animals graze in the fields (eat stubble and fertilize soil) </li></ul><ul><li>9. Cultivation of off season crops eg. vegetables </li></ul>
  11. 12. Flooding the padis . . .
  12. 13. Preparing the padi for planting
  13. 14. Transplanting rice seedlings by hand . . .                                                                                                                             
  14. 15. Sharing the work at harvest time . . .
  15. 16. The Monsoon <ul><li>The Monsoon is a season of particularly heavy rainfall. </li></ul><ul><li>The exact time of year it happens can vary from place to place – some regions have two monsoons a year. </li></ul><ul><li>Rice farmers generally take advantage of the monsoon rains and the rise in river levels to flood their fields </li></ul>
  16. 17. What’s good about buffaloes?
  17. 18. “ Clever Stuff” <ul><li>The buffaloes provide milk and meat and fertiliser and labour – and they live off the stubble from the rice crop </li></ul><ul><li>Growing beans and some vegetables puts nitrogen back into the soil for the next rice crop </li></ul><ul><li>Trees around the padis provide food (coconut and bananas) and fuel and stabilise the bunds with their roots </li></ul><ul><li>Fish are farmed in the canals and padis and reservoirs – they provide food and fertiliser </li></ul>
  18. 19. Features of traditional rice farming systems <ul><li>Polyculture: lots of things are going on at once (opposite to monoculture – only one crop) </li></ul><ul><li>Each part of the farming system is linked to the others. Many of the outputs also become inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of labour goes into the farm (intensive) and this is often done cooperatively </li></ul><ul><li>It can support high densities of population </li></ul><ul><li>The system is ‘sustainable’ – it can go on and on without causing damage </li></ul>