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Montserrat

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Montserrat

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  • Thanks!!! Really helped me with reference. hope u had allowed to download so that i could do it in my desktop
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  • very nice, i like

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  • *pyroclatic flows reach up to speeds of 450mph (700kmph) and temperatures of 1,000 degrees C!!!!!!
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  • I found these slides really helpful and uncomplicated! Thank you!
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  • Thank you so much! i needed for my project! But can you please please just tell me where you got the images from?
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Montserrat

  1. 1. What caused the Soufrière Hills volcano to erupt? The island of Montserrat...
  2. 2. North America South America Where... Montserrat is a small island in the Caribbean. It is situated on a plate boundary, where the Eurasian and Caribbean plate meet. Montserrat is a British colony, and is fairly undeveloped. The Soufrière Hills, where the eruption took place, are located in the South side of the Island. Plymouth is the capital, and that is located on the south west side of the island.
  3. 3. When... The eruption of the Soufriere Hills volcano began on the 18 th July 1995, however the main disaster was on the 25 th June 1997.
  4. 4. Why... The theory of Plate Tectonics: <ul><li>The crust of the Earth is broken up into many different plates. </li></ul><ul><li>These plates rest on the mantle of the Earth, and are rather life rafts on water. </li></ul><ul><li>They are not immobile, but are slowly floating </li></ul><ul><li>The convection currents in the mantle is what makes them move in different directions. </li></ul><ul><li>When the different plates meet each other, it is called a plate boundary. </li></ul><ul><li>Montserrat rests on the boundary of the continental Caribbean plate and the oceanic Atlantic plate. </li></ul><ul><li>This boundary is called a DESTRUCTIVE boundary, and it is where the denser and more heavy plate (in this case, the Atlantic plate) known as the oceanic plate sinks under the less denser, lighter continental plate. </li></ul><ul><li>Oceanic plates are found under the oceans, and continental plates are found under land. </li></ul><ul><li>Continental plates will NEVER sink, and they are permanent. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Destructive Boundaries <ul><li>At this destructive plate boundary, the convection currents in the mantle are pulling both plates together </li></ul><ul><li>The Atlantic oceanic crust is being subducted into the mantle due to increasing pressure and friction, and as it becomes hotter the plate melts. </li></ul><ul><li>The molten rock, called magma begins to rise to the surface through cracks, and a volcano forms. </li></ul><ul><li>When it gains enough pressure to reach the surface, it erupts. </li></ul><ul><li>The Soufriere Hills volcano was formed this way, and is gradually growing. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Composite Volcanoes <ul><li>At destructive plate boundaries, composite volcanoes are formed </li></ul><ul><li>The Soufriere Hills volcano is composite volcano. </li></ul><ul><li>Features: </li></ul><ul><li>STEEP sided symmetrical CONE shape </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH with a NARROW base </li></ul><ul><li>ALTERNATE layers of acid lava and ash </li></ul><ul><li>LAVA may cool INSIDE the vent - next eruption is very explosive to remove the plug </li></ul><ul><li>SUBSIDARY CONES and VENTS form. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Eruption <ul><li>Leading up to the eruption around 1 o clock on the 25 th June, the volcano had been swelling and seen bursting steam. </li></ul><ul><li>At 1 o clock the dome of the volcano collapsed and 5 million cubic metres of hot rocks and ash ran down the side of the volcano, flooding parts of the island. </li></ul><ul><li>The lava from the Soufriere Hills volcano is extremely viscous (thick and sticky) </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, it is too thick to simply pour down the sides of the volcano in the way we usually picture volcanoes </li></ul><ul><li>The lava builds up inside the dome until the volcano can’t support it anymore and collapses </li></ul><ul><li>This caused huge pyroclastic flows to emerge and engulf nearby villages. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Pyroclastic Flows <ul><li>Pyroclastic Flows are an avalanche of hot rocks and ash that come tumbling down from the dome </li></ul><ul><li>These can reach speeds of 80mph and temperatures between 200C – 700C </li></ul><ul><li>Rocks vary in size, from small pebbles to large boulders </li></ul><ul><li>Three pyroclastic flows erupted from the Soufriere hills volcano, and the one travelled 6.8km from the dome. </li></ul><ul><li>Pyroclastic Surges </li></ul><ul><li>These travel on top of the flows </li></ul><ul><li>Usually follows the route of base flow </li></ul><ul><li>Deposits are fine clouds of ash, hot enough to kill ay vegetation it lands on </li></ul>
  9. 9. Damage: To the Environment <ul><li>Damage was far greater than expected. </li></ul><ul><li>Pyroclastic flows travelled further than expected and engulfed many villages </li></ul><ul><li>4-5 million cubic metres of lava erupted </li></ul><ul><li>Total of 4 square kilometres completely covered in ash </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of people became refugees as their accommodation was destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Capital City of Plymouth covered in ash </li></ul>
  10. 10. Damage: To the People <ul><li>19 people lost their lives </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of homes destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Farms and crops destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock killed </li></ul><ul><li>Nowhere to live </li></ul><ul><li>Airport closed so transport in and out of the country was hard </li></ul><ul><li>Several injured survivors that were burned badly </li></ul>
  11. 11. Action Took <ul><li>Before Eruption </li></ul><ul><li>The capital Plymouth was evacuated </li></ul><ul><li>Evacuees moved into shelter north of island </li></ul><ul><li>Evacuation scheme allows residents to immigrate to the UK for two years </li></ul><ul><li>Montserrat volcano Observatory devised an exclusion and risk zone map </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate Action </li></ul><ul><li>Airport closed </li></ul><ul><li>Search and Rescue teams sent out </li></ul><ul><li>Survivors evacuated by helicopter </li></ul>
  12. 12. Long Term Action <ul><li>The government spent £56 million pounds developing northern area of island </li></ul><ul><li>£6.5 million spent towards emergency housing schemes </li></ul><ul><li>Aid to those wishing to immigrate </li></ul><ul><li>Upgrading Hospital </li></ul><ul><li>Other Caribbean Islands offered aid to Montserrat </li></ul><ul><li>Many charities got involved </li></ul>This map was what was in use for a long time after the eruption, in case it happened again.
  13. 13. By Becki Grannan

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