Types of migration <ul><li>Immigration Moving into another country </li></ul><ul><li>Emigration Moving out of a country </li></ul><ul><li>International Moving from one country to another </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary Moving by choice </li></ul><ul><li>Forced Having to move - reasons could include: war, famine, natural disaster, political asylum </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary/seasonal Moving for a short period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Rural to urban Moving from the countryside to the city </li></ul><ul><li>Urban to rural Moving from the city to the countryside </li></ul><ul><li>Transmigration - moving within a country from a high density area (core) to a low density area (periphery) </li></ul>
Migration <ul><li>Migration is defined as a permanent or semi-permanent change in where someone lives. For instance, if you and your family move to Australia due to your dad getting a job out there, you have all migrated. If you all go Australia for a three week holiday, then you have not migrated. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people migrate only for a short period . Turkish immigrant workers to Germany may only go there for a period of months. They have made a semi-permanent move so can be classified as migrants. People working as chalet-maids in a ski resort for the winter also could be classified as having made a semi-permanent migration. </li></ul><ul><li>Migrations fall into two groups , they can be voluntary (where the migrant decides to move) or forced (where the migrant has little choice but to move). </li></ul><ul><li>Migration is because of push and pull factors. </li></ul>
People may migrate because of poor conditions where they live- these negative factors are called push factors Lack of jobs or job opportunities Poor levels of pay and conditions Poor health and education services. Isolated – few transport links, few leisure facilities Climatic hazard eg drought leading to crop failure. Civil war/persecution. Poor quality of life
People may migrate because they are attracted to conditions elsewhere- these positive reasons are called pull factors Job opportunities Perception of better quality of life. Range of health and education services. Entertainment and facilities. Less likelihood of natural hazards. Chance to earn more money Better quality of life
Mexico-USA migration <ul><li>Location </li></ul>Along 2000km border between the Southern states of the USA and Mexico So…why do people migrate?
Mexico and USA 87% 99% Adult literacy (%) 26 15 Birth rate (per 1000 population) 24 7 Infant mortality rate (per 1000 population) 28% 5.6% Unemployment rate (%) 67 76 Life expectancy (years) $3,320 $26,980 GNP per capita (US $) Mexico USA
Images of Tijuana, Mexico... There are huge differences in wealth and quality of lie between the USA and Mexico. There are many PUSH factors that make Mexicans want to leave places like Tijuana and migrate to the USA.
Images of the USA The USA has many pull factors… “The American Dream” which attracts many people to the US. The reality however is often different.
Benefits and problems of migration <ul><li>There are many benefits associated with migration- both for the host country (USA) and for the origin country (Mexico) </li></ul>Migrants are willing to do types of work that the Americans are not eg. Working in meat processing factories for low pay. As there are less people of working age looking for jobs unemployment is kept to a minimum. Cultural influence- through Mexican food and restaurants. The migrants often send back regular money to their families- which they can then spend in the local area, boosting the economy. Businesses eg restaurants can get cheap labour meaning they make more profit (boosting economy) Mexico becomes less densely populated, meaning there is less demand on resources. Benefits for the USA Benefits for Mexico
Benefits and problems of migration <ul><li>There are many problems associated with migration- both for the host country (USA) and for the origin country (Mexico) </li></ul>Illegal immigrants don’t pay tax, so do not contribute to the economy. As there are many elderly people there are fewer people of working age to work. Cultural problems- racism and poor treatment of the Hispanic population. The migrants are usually young men- leaving behind large numbers of elderly and females. Many people believe Mexicans ‘steal’ their jobs. Mexico loses a high % of working age men meaning less tax is paid- so less money can be invested in improving the country. Problems for the USA Problems for Mexico
Transmigration is one method that a number of governments have used to try and solve population problems. Transmigration in Indonesia Indonesia can be divided into a core area (this includes the large cities and the islands of Java). Java (core)
Background <ul><li>60% of Indonesia’s population live on Java itself- making the population density very high- especially in Jakarta. </li></ul><ul><li>The government needed to stop Jakarta’s urban growth. </li></ul><ul><li>People migrate to Jakarta in large numbers to find work. </li></ul>
The Government introduced a transmigration policy. <ul><li>This aims to move people from the core area (Java/Jakarta) to the periphery- to new farming areas set up by the government. </li></ul><ul><li>The migrants are given free transport, free land and housing and other assistance such as food and fertiliser for the first 12 months. </li></ul><ul><li>Even though many have migrated the scheme has not been entirely successful. </li></ul>
Political Problems <ul><li>The migration has only had a small impact because it moves far fewer people than the population increase on Java. </li></ul><ul><li>The administration is inefficient. </li></ul><ul><li>The costs to the government are high </li></ul><ul><li>The programme relies on aid from abroad e.g. from the World Bank. </li></ul>
Environmental Problems <ul><li>Many islands have infertile soils. </li></ul><ul><li>About 10 per cent of new settlements have already failed because of poor soils. </li></ul><ul><li>Some sites have been badly affected by flooding or volcanic activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Rainforest has been cleared over vast areas to make way for the migrants. </li></ul><ul><li>49 million hectares of forest have been cleared in the last 30 years. </li></ul><ul><li>When vegetation is cleared the soils are soon leached, making them useless for farming. </li></ul>
Socio-Economic Problems <ul><li>Conflict between the traditional farmers and newcomers who were given money and land. </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity is low, leaving some farmers still needing support after a year. </li></ul><ul><li>Some native tribes have lost land and been forced to move other areas. </li></ul>
Other Examples <ul><li>In Brazil in government wanted to reduce urban overcrowding in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo. </li></ul><ul><li>They moved the capital city from Rio to Brasilia (inland) to encourage people to move from the core to the periphery. </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs were created and people encouraged to move to the Amazon rainforest to start farming, with financial support from the government. </li></ul>
Refugees- forced migration <ul><li>Forced migration - This is when people have no choice, they either move or face extreme hardship or even death. This often happens when there is a natural disaster or a war. These migrants are called refugees . For example at the end of 2005 200,000 people had to flee Sudan to Chad after there had been a two year civil war. Other examples of Forced migration are the Palestinians into The West Bank after the creation of Israel. The movement of people from Montserrat in 1997 after a volcanic eruption. </li></ul>Case Study of Forced Migration- Darfur (Sudan) to Chad 2005 onwards By early 2006 there had been three years of civil war in Sudan’s western region of Darfur. The UN said that the events in Darfur would have a serious impact on not just Sudan and the refugees, but on the neighbouring country of Chad (where refugees fled). Details of the crisis… 180,000 Darfuri’s killed 200,000 fled to Chad and live in refugee camps. Up to 1.8 million live in refugee camps in Darfur. Hundreds of villages been burnt out, people killed and assaulted in their homes.