limestone

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limestone

  1. 1. Limestone Scenery A presentation by D Harland
  2. 2. The Cavern <ul><li>What you see here is a result of chemical weathering. </li></ul><ul><li>Most caverns are formed as water trickles through tiny cracks in the stone, dissolving the lime, enlarging the cracks. The cracks then become crevices, then channels, and finally, tunnels. </li></ul><ul><li>In time stalactites and stalagmites will form as well as underground streams. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Stalactite <ul><li>All rainwater is slightly acidic because when carbon dioxide from the atmosphere dissolves in rainwater, it creates a weak acid, by the name of Carbonic acid. </li></ul><ul><li>This weak acid can then dissolve some types of rock. </li></ul><ul><li>The feature shown on this slide is a stalactite. This was formed as rainwater dripped through the cracks in the limestone and dissolved away the rock to become a cavern. </li></ul><ul><li>The dissolved rock then decomposes to reform the substance, Calcium carbonate. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Stalagmite <ul><li>When you are in a cavern and you listen carefully, in more cases than not you will hear the sound of dripping water. </li></ul><ul><li>This sound could possibly be the birth of a stalagmite. </li></ul><ul><li>This dripping water contains calcium carbonate and as it drips it evaporates and deposits the calcium on the ground. </li></ul><ul><li>The minerals begin to form a mound on the cavern floor and eventually, if under the correct conditions, a stalagmite begins to grow. </li></ul><ul><li>It grows because as each drip drops, more and more layers of minerals are deposited continuously in the same spot. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Limestone <ul><li>Limestone rocks are sedimentary rocks that are made from the mineral calcite which came from the beds of evaporated seas and lakes and from sea animal shells. </li></ul><ul><li>Limestone is one of the most versatile stones available. In its pure form it is hard enough to be used in almost any application, however it is relatively soft compared to other building stones such as marble. </li></ul><ul><li>Limestone is chiefly composed of calcium carbonate. It is a sedimentary rock, which means that it is formed by the collection of other minerals coming together to bond at a structural level. This most commonly occurs when lime builds up in oceans, then washes ashore and dries out. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Malham in the Yorshire Dales
  7. 7. Walking <ul><li>Walking is a major land use for limestone areas. What with all the open space and the lovely views of the country side, tourists can’t keep away! </li></ul><ul><li>Also there is a large and growing number of people nowadays who regard walking as their number one hobby and as limestone areas are so attractive, places like Malham are first choice walking resorts. </li></ul><ul><li>Also the countryside is a great place for some breathing space and Malham provides that breathing space, with its vast open areas. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Grazing Sheep <ul><li>With the vast acres of land, it gives farmers a great opportunity to put some sheep on top of it. </li></ul><ul><li>There are a lot of hills in limestone areas and as the soil isn’t to great for harvesting crops on, sheep are put on them to fill up the space. </li></ul><ul><li>The sheep get plenty of space to roam free and they get plenty of grass to ensure that they don’t starve. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Quarrying Quarrying is one of the biggest mineral industries with an output of over 4.7 million tonnes. There are 5 major areas, which benefit from limestone quarrying: Agriculture Aggregates for roads, eg concrete Other chemical uses Iron and steel Cement

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