Green Revolution


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Green Revolution

  2. 2. The beginnings of the green revolution <ul><li>By the 1960’s increasing population meant that that it was essential to increase yields in LEDC’s to feed people and improve living standards </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is the green revolution? <ul><li>The green revolution was partly a plant engineering programme where new varieties and strains of crops were produced to increase yields. </li></ul><ul><li>The development and introduction of high-yielding (HYVs) of rice and wheat was described as a ‘green revolution’. </li></ul>
  4. 4. High yield varieties increased production <ul><li>In Northern India – in Punjab and Haryana yields of rice and wheat tripled. </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of the 1960s India could feed it’s rapidly growing population- it was self-sufficient in wheat and rice crops. </li></ul>
  5. 5. How did this happen? <ul><li>New strains of rice were introduced- e.g IR8 “miracle rice”. This trebled rice yields. </li></ul><ul><li>Dwarf varieties can be grown closer together without blocking sunlight. Because they are short they are less likely to be damaged by the wind. </li></ul><ul><li>HYV’s are designed to make maximum use of fertilisers- so they have smaller root systems- this makes them less reliant on fertile soil. </li></ul><ul><li>HYV’s are designed to withstand common diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter growing seasons mean more than one crop can be grown every year. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Sounds too good to be true? It hasn’t been a success for everyone.
  7. 7. Successes and failures <ul><li>Successes </li></ul><ul><li>Failures </li></ul>Using the cards you have been given sort them out into successes and failures- winners and losers.
  8. 8. Successes… <ul><li>Higher yields mean people are better fed and may even have surplus crops for sale or export. </li></ul><ul><li>Faster growing HYV’s allow an extra crop to be grown every year. </li></ul><ul><li>Yields are more reliable as many new varieties are disease resistant. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Successes… <ul><li>People can have a more varied diet, as higher yields allow some fields to be used for other crops- including vegetables. </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation allows more reliable harvests on previously marginal land. </li></ul><ul><li>There is an enhanced quality of life with more money for better housing and better roads. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Failures <ul><li>Only rich farmers, who can afford to invest in these changes will benefit. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased use of pesticides has poisoned other types of wildlife in the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Overuse of irrigation has led to salinisation of the soil </li></ul><ul><li>HYV’s are more susceptible to pest damage </li></ul>
  11. 11. Failures <ul><li>HYVs need a reliable and controlled water supply and much greater amounts of machinery and agrochemicals- these greatly increase farmers costs. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who can’t afford the extra cost of modernisation run into debt and can end up being forced off their land. </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanisation and farm amalgamation have led to rural unemployment and migration to already overcrowded cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased yields have meant a drop in food prices for local people in some areas. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Overcrowded cities <ul><li>Large numbers of rural unemployed (by machines) migrate to cities such as Calcutta (Kolkatta) </li></ul><ul><li>When they arrive they end up in shanty housing called “bustees” which are made from rubbish and any available material. Quality of life here is very poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Others end up on the streets as “pavement dwellers”. </li></ul><ul><li>This causes immense social problems and increased poverty in already overcrowded cities. Life is extremely hard. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Clearly this is a problem.. <ul><li>The green revolution has benefited some- but for most it is too ambitious and financially unviable. </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of the problems are a result of unsuitable or inappropriate technology being used. </li></ul><ul><li>To be a success many farmers need to use the skills they already have e.g. labour. </li></ul><ul><li>By using appropriate technology farmers can increase living standards easily and quickly. </li></ul>
  14. 14. What is appropriate technology? <ul><li>It is a level of technology which can be maintained by the people using it. It’s seen as the way to combat problems and increase living standards in LEDCs. </li></ul><ul><li>It “plays to people’s strengths”. </li></ul>