Geography Eco Tourism


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Geography Eco Tourism

  1. 1. This has developed to try to limit the negative impacts of our holiday on the environment and also the lives of local people.
  2. 2. • Minimise damage to local culture • Help social justice • Protect wildlife • To be ‘environmentally friendly’ • Help to generate income and employment to local people • Protect the well being of the local people • Limit and control the number of tourists in the area • Promote conservation • Minimise damage to the environment
  3. 3. Since 1990, tourism in Zimbabwe has grown by 20%. This has brought considerable economic benefits here • 1.3 million visited Zimbabwe in 1996, spending almost £120 million • Of course tourism provides employment for locals, in Zimbabwe tourism provided 60 000 jobs for people. Zimbabwe has avoided mass tourism there and only catered for small groups on interest holidays. These eco-tourists include: • Wildlife enthusiasts • Birdwatchers • botanists • Photographers
  4. 4. Zimbabwe has spectacular wildlife. Game reserves, National parks and other wildlife reserves cover more than 10% of the country. In National parks such as Hwange and Mana Pools have many of Africa’s largest mammals such as • Elephant • Rhino • Lion •Giraffe • Hippo • Buffalo • Zebra Other major tourist attractions includes Victoria Falls and Lake Kariba. Also the Great Zimbabwe ruins and the capital, Harare with its museums and art galleries.
  5. 5. Tourists require accommodation, electricity, clean water, roads and airports. Zimbabwe has one of the best developed infrastructures in Africa. • In Harare and Bulawayo there are top-class hotels, mainly owned by international chains such as Holiday Inn. • Accommodation in national parks ranges from luxury lodges to chalets and caravans. • Compared to other LEDCs Zimbabwe has adequate road networks and in Harare there is an international airport.
  6. 6. Without managing resources for tourism, the resources that tourism depends on are easily degraded. Zimbabwe aims to develop eco tourism protecting large areas of the country such as national parks and game reserves. However, like a lot there are problems with the growth of eco-tourism. • Subsistence farmers living around the edge of game reserves and national parks often come into conflict with wild animals which often destroy crops • These farmers are poor and with a rapid population growth land is in short supply. • The farmers also grow crops inside conservation areas and allow animals to graze there, this destroys wildlife habitats. • Wild animals threaten the livelihood of local people. Some tourist developments in parts of Zimbabwe are causing concern. Victoria Falls is becoming increasingly commercialised, bungee jumping, micro-light aircraft flights and the sale of cheap trinkets are giving the Falls a poor image.
  7. 7. The government has developed policies giving local people an interest in conserving wildlife. In 1984, the Zimbabwe government introduced CAMPFIRE, this stands for Communal Areas Management Programme For Indigenous Resources scheme. Money from game hunting fees – tourists pay up to £4600 to shoot an elephant and by selling meat and hides, this brings money to the local community bringing profit. And local communities are given money for any crop losses that are caused by wildlife. Thanks to CAMPFIRE the attitude of wildlife to the locals has changed as the wildlife brings them income and this gives them an interest in protecting it.
  8. 8. The problem at Victoria Falls highlights the dilemma facing countries wishing to develop tourism. Countries wonder whether they should promote eco-tourism or mass-market tourism. Zimbabwe chose Eco- tourism because they argue it is not the volume but the amount the tourists spend. Recent political problems are likely to have reduced the amount of tourists to Zimbabwe.