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Ch. 25 - "Land Empires in the Age of Imperialism"


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Powerpoint review of Chapter 25.

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Ch. 25 - "Land Empires in the Age of Imperialism"

  1. 1. Ch. 25
  2. 2.  While Western European economies were thriving from successful industrialization and money coming over from their overseas colonies, the land-empires of Eurasia were starting to fall apart. Old inefficient ways of governing, lack of industrialization, population growth, and slow agriculture development were a common problem to all the land-based empires of Eurasia. Earlier military expansion had depleted the treasuries leaving the land-based empires vulnerable to European military pressure.
  3. 3.  The land-based Eurasian empires either ignored or were oblivious to the growing European pressures and competition. The Crimean and Opium Wars exposed the military weakness of the Ottoman, Russian, and Qing empires and repeated crises would eventually result in the fall of all three.
  4. 4.  The Ottoman Empire faced pressure from the British, French, and Russians who wanted less commercial competition in the Mediterranean as well as equality for Christians. The Qing Empire faced pressures from Europeans and Americans who wanted more trade rights and less restrictions. The Russian Empire faced pressure from Britain to end their territorial expansion into Asia which threatened Britain’s Indian colonies.
  5. 5.  While the Ottoman and Russian Empires tried to adapt and made attempts at political and military reform, the Qing resisted. The Ottoman and Qing would eventually fall apart from external imperialistic pressures as well as internal civil wars. Russia successfully adapted and reformed and became accepted by the rest of Europe as it now shared many aspects of European culture.
  6. 6.  Crimean War
  7. 7.  A dispute over who was the protector of Ottoman Christians began when the sultan gave in to W. European pressure and gave this responsibility to France. Russia protested as they had already signed a treaty and claimed this role, but the sultan held firm. Britain was already ant-Russian as they feared Russia would interfere with their stranglehold on India either by land or in the Mediterranean Sea.
  8. 8.  Britain and France sided with the Ottoman Empire and with their modern weapons, defeated and humiliated the Russians. After the war, declining state revenues from agriculture yields, overpopulation, and widespread corruption damaged Ottoman finances and the government became increasingly dependant on foreign loans. Ottoman govt. lowered taxes on European imports, opened European banks, and allowed Europeans to follow their own laws and be exempt from Ottoman jurisdiction – a status known as extraterritoriality.
  9. 9.  Russia was still viewed as an “alien, backward, and oppressive land” by most Western Europeans. Like Peter the Great, Tsar Alexander had a major impact in the reform of Russia, but all progress stopped when his conservative brother Nicholas succeeded to the throne. Suspicious of Western ideals, Nicholas limited education and literacy, kept peasants in serfdom, and ignored the need to industrialize.
  10. 10.  China restricted British trade to 1 port, Canton. Britain had a trade deficit (imported more than it exported) with China. The demand for Chinese tea in Britain forced Britain to find another export to send to China…Opium from India. China banned importing Opium. Britain responded with force.
  11. 11.  The Chinese were no match for British weapons and warships. The Chinese had no choice but to agree to sign the Treaty of Nanking which  opened up 5 more ports to British trade (eventually 90)  gave British residents in China extra rights  extraterritoriality  lowered taxes on British goods  Legalized British opium trade  forced China to pay all costs of the war  gave Britain the island of Hong Kong. The Opium War marked the beginning of the establishment of Western influence in China.
  12. 12.  The land-based empires of Eurasia were vulnerable to the military strength and industrial wealth of Western Europe. The Ottoman Empire fared well. It was geographically close to Europe and fairly early began reforms designed to maintain equilibrium with Europe. Those reforms included financial and military modernization. Distant from Europe, both geographically and ideologically, the Qing Empire began reform efforts so late and could not unite against European pressure. The Qing failed to see a connection between Russian expansion and European seaborne expansion to the southeast, and were consequently less prepared for the European challenge.
  13. 13. 1. Decembrist Revolution2. White Lotus Rebellion3. Taiping Rebellion With your group, locate the cause and results of the above revolution/rebellion. Write your findings on the board.
  14. 14. Tongzhi Restoration
  15. 15. Decembrist Revolts
  16. 16. Opium War
  17. 17.  1500’s Ottoman Empire is the strongest in the world Islamic Law (Shari’a) regulates daily life Ottomans begin to lose grip on trade (Indian Ocean) Inflation caused by cheap silver from the New World Tax farming replaces land grants for military service Janisaries challenge authority and rebel 1700’s Ottoman Empire begins to lose power to provincial governors
  18. 18.  Muhammad Ali assumes power in Egypt after Napoleon (1805)  Adopted French practices, European sciences  Strengthened the military  Fell to British pressures to limit his army and navy, and allow trade Sultan Selim III (1807) reforms the Ottoman Empire  Strengthen the military & central government  Standardize taxation & land tenure 1805- Janissaries revolt in Serbia  Serbian peasants helped defeat Janissaries  Went on to make Serbia independent Greece gained independence 1829  Sultan Mahmud II lost Greece to European powers  Britain, France, and Russia aided & regarded it as a triumph for European civilization
  19. 19.  Peter the Great (1689-1725) brings reform to Russia Peter had great visions for a warm- water port on the Black Sea Peter brings social/ political reform to Russia  Western clothing  Western education  Form a strong military unit  Increase the power of the tsar  Increase access to scientific education
  20. 20.  After Crimean War- Ottoman Empire continued to establish secular financial and commercial institutions on the European model. Effects- Shifted population from rural to urban Development of professional and wage laborer classes Did not solve fiscal problems. Continued trade deficit, inflation and foreign debt Ottoman Empire favors European trade, laws, and peoples
  21. 21.  1700 only 3% lived in cities Fear of political change hindered westernization Russophobia in the West Russian Empire stretched to Pacific and China Britain took steps to halt Russia Reforms of Alexander I promised more then delivered Opposition to reform came from the wealthy
  22. 22.  Qing conquered China in 1600’s  Restored peace and stability  Promoted recovery of agricultural economy  Chinese population doubled between 1650-1800 Many people unhappy  Government viewed as weak & corrupt  Series of rebellions- White Lotus rebellion Qing China looked to expand China’s economic influence to Europe (tea)
  23. 23.  Treaty of Nanking and subsequent treaties gave Westerners special privileges  Result- colonization of small pockets of Qing territory  Gave most-favored-nation status to Britain  Prevented the colonization of China
  24. 24.  Governors like Zeng Guofon looked to the U.S. as a model  Wanted to restore agriculture  Reform military  Industrialize armaments manufacture Reforms supported by Qing aristocrats but unable to prevent disintegration Split into large power zones-provincial governors exercised authority