The invasive species challenge in estuarine and coastal (2)


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  • Este articulos es un ensayo donde los autores recopilan la literatura existente acerca de las especies invasivas, y que tanto esfuerzo se ha hecho para poder manjeralas
  • Las especies introducidas son aquellas especies que se han introducido por el hombre habiendose establecido en un sitio fuera de su rango natural de distribucion/ o habitat natural. Lo que identifica a estas especies es su capacidad de causar danios ecologicos y economicos. Los estudarios y las costas son especialmente suceptibles a la introduccion de especies debido a diferentes actividades tales como: navegacion, acuacultura, acuarios, uso de carnadas para pesca. A pesar de que en los ultimos anios ha habido un creciente interes cientifico y preocupacion por el danio que causan estas especies, las investigaciones y publicaciones cientificas en este tema han sido muy pocas, y en general en revistas de temas marinos generales.
  • Australia y Nueva Zelanda son los que tienen la mayor experiencia en manejo de IS
  • limited awareness, legal frameworks, and resources
  • Time lags between introduction and spread allow a window of opportunity
  • In the US, lost opportunities to measure the efficacy of eradication treatments Australia provided rigorous data for management and the ecological effects of this algae
  • Metodos geneticos tienen limitaciones para identificar especies
  • Most studies were on the species-species impact
  • Lack of data is a limitation for risk assessments. High connectivty among different populations. Species with open popultions, high connectivity, rapid dispersal, are more difficult to eradicate
  • The following research needs although have practical implications are not widely recognized in the management community
  • The invasive species challenge in estuarine and coastal (2)

    1. 1. Susan L. Williams and Edwin D. Grosholz Estuaries and Coasts: J CERF (2008) 31: 3-20
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Introduced species : introduced outside its native range through human activities; invasive species (IS)are a subset that are likely to, or cause economic or ecological harm . </li></ul><ul><li>Estuaries and coasts are particularly susceptible to introductions of nonnative species partly a consequence of being center s for the activities that represent the major vectors for introductions: shipping and boating, aquaculture, system connectivity, aquarium trade, live seafood and bait </li></ul><ul><li>Despite this increased scientific interest and public awareness (e.g., cholera virus, killer algae, pythons), research articles on introduced species are relatively few and published in general marine journals </li></ul>
    3. 3. Progress Toward Management: The Regulatory Framework <ul><li>Australia and New Zealand stand out among nations in taking proactive approaches to dealing with the prevention, eradication, and control of invasive marine organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Approach to the management of introduced species in these countries is strongly science-based </li></ul><ul><li>In USA : 1) lack of a centralized agency that has had the necessary resources or the authority for management of introduced species, 2) slow to move forward with their plans, 3) states act independently-lack of federal leadership </li></ul><ul><li>More than 50 international and regional legal instruments exist that address the intentional introductions of nonnative species, including the CBD, the International </li></ul><ul><li>Counsel for Exploration of the Seas (Codes of Practice on the Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms), Agreement on the Application of Sanitary an d Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) under the World Trade Organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Few are binding or carry penalties for noncompliance!!!!!!!!! </li></ul>
    4. 4. Progress Toward Management: The Regulatory Framework <ul><li>The existing legal instruments concerning invasive species focus heavily on preventing introductions. Best way to reduce future costs of management. </li></ul><ul><li>Some reasons for the lack of early detection and prompt action: </li></ul><ul><li>Introductions are rarely evident </li></ul><ul><li>The economic impact of introduced estuarine and coastal species are understudied and mostly qualitative, the incentive to manage is proportionally reduced </li></ul><ul><li>Externalities, are notoriously difficult to estimate, particularly in the marine environment </li></ul>
    5. 5. Why Allocate Precious Resources to Introduced Species in the Coastal Environment? <ul><li>So why there is a need to manage IS? </li></ul><ul><li>1) Threatening or endangering native marine species </li></ul><ul><li>2) Pathogens and toxic dinoflagellates </li></ul><ul><li>3) Accumulate higher levels of contaminants than native species </li></ul><ul><li>4) Economic impact </li></ul>
    6. 7. Why Allocate Precious Resources to Introduced Species in the Coastal Environment? <ul><li>Managers were in consensus that access to experts and basic biological and ecological information was critical to managing the eradications and more was desirable </li></ul><ul><li>Managers also relied on scientists to provide eradication success/failure benchmarks and reviews of programs to facilitate adaptive management. </li></ul><ul><li>Risk assessment and cost-benefit analyses were useful even if qualitative; the more extensive the scientific evidence for the risk, the easier it was to take or defend management actions </li></ul><ul><li>Several managers pointed out a slow or absent response from their agencies in supporting their on-the-ground efforts </li></ul>
    7. 8. Two Case Histories: The Introductions of Caulerpa and Spartina <ul><li>Caulerpa taxifolia (“killer algae”): </li></ul><ul><li>Native from tropical waters </li></ul><ul><li>Considered one of the world ’s top 100 invasive species </li></ul><ul><li>1999, USDA Noxious Weed List </li></ul><ul><li>2000: identified in southern California </li></ul><ul><li>2006: success of the eradication program, SCCAT (Southern California Caulerpa Action Team) </li></ul><ul><li>Mediterranean waters, don’t have the same luck, too late detection, spread everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Herbicides effective for controlling freshwater nuisance plants does not work for C. taxifolia </li></ul><ul><li>Copper treatment was considered, but the USA Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) objected </li></ul><ul><li>California also passed legislation prohibiting the possession and sale of C. taxifolia and other species of Caulerpa </li></ul><ul><li>Caulerpa is still being sold in California </li></ul>
    8. 9. Two Case Histories: The Introductions of Caulerpa and Spartina <ul><li>Spartina alterniflora (eastern cordgrassess): </li></ul><ul><li>Native from eastern North America </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced to California (800 ha) and to Washington (2400 ha) </li></ul><ul><li>In SF Bay, hybridized with the native S. foliosa </li></ul><ul><li>Negative effects on benthic food webs, ecosystem structure and function </li></ul><ul><li>Like with Caulerpa , very limited collaboration between science and managers </li></ul>
    9. 10. The need for marrying science with management <ul><li>Learned lessons: </li></ul><ul><li>Most management options are reduced to eradication and control </li></ul><ul><li>Marine invasive species do not inevitably spread rapidly and extensively beyond control </li></ul><ul><li>For the invasive ones, eradication, which is less costly than prolonged control programs, can be feasible in the early stages of invasion when the distribution of the invader is limited </li></ul><ul><li>“ Successful eradication occurred when the introduced populations were small and restricted, human and financial resources were available, and early action was taken” </li></ul>
    10. 11. Highlighting an Agenda for Management-Focused Research <ul><li>Prevention : screen undesirable species based on propensity for successful establishment </li></ul><ul><li>- habitat similarities with donor environment </li></ul><ul><li>- niche, climate, physiological tolerance, ecological interactions represented in a species distribution models (SDM) GIS </li></ul><ul><li>Early detection : rapid identification of introduced species </li></ul><ul><li>- genetic dipstick, barcoding and shotgun sequences </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    11. 12. Highlighting an Agenda for Management-Focused Research <ul><li>Effects on Communities and Ecosystems (trophic levels, functional groups, nutrients cycling and storage) </li></ul>
    12. 13. Highlighting an Agenda for Management-Focused Research <ul><li>Risk assessment : probability that a species establishes successfully x probability that it will cause harm </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding connectivity to Prioritize Eradication and Control Efforts </li></ul>
    13. 14. Highlighting an Agenda for Management-Focused Research <ul><li>Eradication and Control Needs : </li></ul><ul><li>- avoid harm to native species </li></ul><ul><li>- biocontrol (few studies) </li></ul><ul><li>- transgenic approaches (promising) </li></ul><ul><li>- pheromone control (promising) </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge: rapid dilution in flowing waters </li></ul>
    14. 15. Highlighting an Agenda for Management-Focused Research <ul><li>The Need for Decision Support: </li></ul><ul><li>Need of a single source, readily accessible, step-wise management decision support system (when, where to start, what to use) </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of authorities, required regulations and permits, access to experts </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of data is still an obstacle…. </li></ul>
    15. 16. Highlighting an Agenda for Management-Focused Research <ul><li>Evolutionary Potential : changes in the biology of the introduced species, genetic variation, evolution and adaptation, plastic phenotype </li></ul><ul><li>Important to understand how the population genetic structure influences the likelihood than an introduced species will become invasive </li></ul>
    16. 17. Highlighting an Agenda for Management-Focused Research <ul><li>Ecological Economics and introduced Species: </li></ul><ul><li>need of cross-disciplinary approaches </li></ul><ul><li>costs of introduced species to develop more effective recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of data for risk assessments used in economic models.. </li></ul>
    17. 18. Highlighting an Agenda for Management-Focused Research <ul><li>Facilitation of Subsequent Introduced Species: </li></ul><ul><li>an introduced species can influence subsequent introductions (“facilitator”) </li></ul><ul><li>Few documented examples in marine ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>If this happens, need of greater management strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Climate Change and Species Introductions: </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature increase success of introduced species </li></ul><ul><li>Rising sea level unknown consequences </li></ul><ul><li>CO2 increase likely to benefit C3 introduced species </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean acidification benefit introduced species that do not calcify </li></ul>
    18. 19. Conclusions <ul><li>Need of the same will and resources nations have applied to reducing pollution, restorations of wetlands and fisheries stocks </li></ul><ul><li>Australia and New Zealand demonstrated that research and management can be effectively integrated. From costly eradication and control, to proactive prevention. </li></ul>
    19. 20. Aquatic invasive species in Puerto Rico <ul><li>Lion fish </li></ul><ul><li>No formal strategic plan yet </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Risk assessment: 1) what information do we need?, 2) is a priority? </li></ul><ul><li>Eradication: feasible? </li></ul><ul><li>Control: kill every individual, consumption, economic incentives </li></ul>
    20. 21. NEEDS (DRNA, 2011): <ul><li>Information as precise as possible on the distribution and abundance of lionfish within PR territorial waters and habitats. Where should we concentrate our time and efforts ? What are the best techniques to use in each? Are there predictable spawning aggregation sites that we can target for intensive removals? </li></ul><ul><li>A successful plan to efficiently overfish lionfish, in the shortest time possible, at all depths, and keep them in that condition (or worse) forever. </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of any serious potential predators of lionfish among the native fish community that we should be protecting. Some divers report that blennies, morays, octopus, and graysby grouper show potential to consume lionfish </li></ul>
    21. 22. GRACIAS!!