Professor: Eth Oudaya
Group 01: I4GEE-EE_01
Power consumption has been increased enormously across the
world so the power generation should be increased. There are
many ways of power generation.
Some of them leads to environment pollution. So, non
conventional power plants must be encouraged.
SOME TYPE OF NON CONVENTIONAL POWER PLANTS
All power plants shown above are effected by the climatic conditions.
Cannot be operated through out year
A new type of power plant which is non conventional and can be operated 24/7 is
OSMOTIC POWER PLANT.
What is osmotic power?
Osmotic power is generated by exploiting the pressure difference created
across the semi permeable membrane when two solutions of different
solute concentration are separated by the same.
PRINCIPLE OF OSMOSIS:
Pressure retarded osmosis
Osmosis means passages of water from a region of high water concentration (often
freshwater) through a semi permeable membrane to a region of low water
concentration ( often Nacl).
The membrane only lets water molecules pass. Salt molecules, sand, slit and other
contaminants are prevented to do so.
PLANT LOCATION OSMOTIC POWER PLANT
• Osmotic power plant is build where theirs is abundant supply of fresh and salt water
– The river delta.
• Almost all major cities if the world are located at the banks of river delta. Hence unlike
other renewable sources like Hydroelectric power, the osmotic plant will be situated
very near to the load centers.
River Fresh Water and Salt water mixing Osmotic Power Plant
OSMOTIC POWER PROTOTYPE
The Osmotic Power prototype
located at Norway
When a semi permeable membrane kept between the reservoirs containing fresh
water and sea water respectively, a net flow of water to salt water side is observed
because of osmosis. If salt water compartment has fixed volume, the pressure will
rise to a theoretical maximum of 26 bars of pressure that equals to about 270
meters of water column.
By practical experience it is observed that in order to achieve 1MW of energy one
cubic meters of fresh water(per second) is mixed with two cubic meters of sea
water 12 bars. The initial pressure is provided by the pressure exchanger that
connects the outlet and the sea water inlet.
POWER GENERATION POTENTIAL.
• The global potential is estimated to be 1,600-1,700 Twh – equivalent to 50% of
EU’s total annual power generation today. In Norway alone, it would be able to
generate 12 Twh per year –equivalent to around 10% of our total power
consumption. Osmotic power can become an important contributor to the
generation of clean, renewable energy.
• According to osmotic power, the power will be available to you if you maintain a
salt gradient between waters no matter what the topography is.
ADVANTAGES OF OSMOTIC POWER
It is renewable.
There‘s no risk of running out of salt because of osmotic power produced.
There is no carbon dioxide or no greenhouse gases emission
It is very ‘clean’ process.
If there‘s a salt gradient then power will be
It produces electricity reliably
High efficiency 15
Osmotic energy is high upfront costs.
You will need to find a way to connect the electricity to the grid.
The average salinity inside the basin decreases, also affecting the ecosystem.
Effects on marine life during construction phases.
Hard to find location.
It needs energy to generate
Osmotic power plants can be constructed anywhere freshwater flows out
into the sea, provided that the salt concentration is sufficiently high. Unlike solar
power and wind power, osmotic power plants are not affected by fluctuations in the
weather and will produce continuous and predictable electricity. Most river outlets
around the world represent a potential location for a plant, even though some rivers
need more cleaning of the water than others.