Istqb ctfl syll 2011

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Istqb ctfl syll 2011

  1. 1. Certifi Tester C ied r Found dation Lev Sy n vel yllabu us Released R Ver rsion 201 11Int ternatio onal Software Testing Qualif g fication Board ns r
  2. 2. International Certif fied Teste er Software Te esting Founda ation Level Sy yllabus Q Qualifications Board sCopyrigh Notice htThis doc cument may be copied in its entirety, or extracts made, if the s m source is ack knowledged.Copyrigh Notice © In ht nternational Software Teesting Qualific cations Boar (hereinafte called ISTQB®) rd erISTQB is a registered trademark of the Intern s d ware Testing Qualifications Board, national Softw gCopyrigh © 2011 the authors for the update 2011 (Thomas Müller (ch ht e r hair), Debra Friedenberg, andthe ISTQ WG Foun QB ndation Level)Copyrigh © 2010 the authors for the update 2010 (Thomas Müller (ch ht e r hair), Armin B Beer, MartinKlonk, R Rahul Verma) )Copyrigh © 2007 the authors for the update 2007 (Thomas Müller (ch ht e r hair), Dorothy Graham, Debra y D berg and Erik van Veenendaal)Friedenb kCopyrigh © 2005, th authors (T ht he Thomas Mülle (chair), Re Black, Sig Eldh, Dorothy Graham, er ex gridKlaus Ol lsen, Maaret Pyhäjärvi, G Geoff Thompson and Erik van Veenen k ndaal).All rights reserved. sThe auth hors hereby ttransfer the c copyright to t Internatio the onal Softwar Testing Qu re ualifications Board(ISTQB). The author (as current copyright holders) and ISTQB (as th future cop rs t I he pyright holder)have agr reed to the fo ollowing condditions of use e:1) Any individual or training com r mpany may u this sylla use abus as the b basis for a tra aining course if the e authors and the ISTQB are acknowledge as the so ed ource and coopyright owners of the sy yllabus and provided tha any adver at rtisement of such a train ning course m mention the syllabu only may n us after submission for official accreditatio of the tra r n on aining mater rials to an IISTQB recognized Natio onal Board.2) Any individual or group of in r ndividuals ma use this syllabus as t basis for articles, boo ay s the oks, or othe derivative writings if th authors a er he and the ISTQB are acknowledged a the sourc and as ce copy yright owners of the syllabus. s3) Any ISTQB-reco ognized Natio onal Board m translate this syllabu and licens the syllab (or may e us se bus ranslation) to other parties. its tr oVersion 2 2011 Page 2 of 78 7 31-Mar r-2011© Internationa Software Testing Q al Qualifications Board
  3. 3. International Certif fied Teste er Software Te esting Founda ation Level Sy yllabus Q Qualifications Board sRevision Histo oryVersion Date D Remarks sISTQB 2 2011 Effective 1-Ap E pr-2011 Certified Tester Foundation Level Syllabus l Maintena ance Release – see Appe e endix E – Reelease NotesISTQB 2 2010 Effective 30-M E Mar-2010 Certified Tester Foundation Level Syllabus l Maintena ance Release – see Appe e endix E – Reelease NotesISTQB 2 2007 01-May-2007 0 7 Certified Tester Foundation Level Syllabus l Maintena ance ReleaseeISTQB 2 2005 01-July-2005 0 Certified Tester Foundation Level Syllabus lASQF V2.2 July-2003 J ASQF Sy yllabus Foundation Level Version 2.2 “Lehrplan Grundlagen des Softwa n n are-testens“ISEB V2 2.0 25-Feb-1999 2 ISEB Sof ftware Testin Foundatio Syllabus V2.0 ng on V 25 February 1999Version 2 2011 Page 3 of 78 7 31-Mar r-2011© Internationa Software Testing Q al Qualifications Board
  4. 4. International Certif fied Teste er Software Te esting Founda ation Level Sy yllabus Q Qualifications Board sTable of Conte entsAcknowledgements.. ........................................ ................................................... 7  ........................................Introducttion to this SSyllabus............................ ................................................... 8  ........................................ Purpo of this Do ose ocument .......................... ................................................... 8  ........................................ The CCertified Test Foundatio Level in S ter on Software Testing .............. ................................................... 8  Learnning Objective es/Cognitive Level of Kno owledge .......................... ................................................... 8  The EExamination . ........................................ ................................................... 8  ........................................ Accreeditation ........ ........................................ ................................................... 8  ........................................ Level of Detail...... ........................................ ................................................... 9  ........................................ How tthis Syllabus is Organized .................. ................................................... 9  ........................................1.  Fun ndamentals o Testing (K of K2)................ ................................................. 10  ........................................ 1.1  Why is Te esting Necessary (K2) ..... ................................................. 11  ........................................ 1.1.1  Software Systems C Context (K1) ....................................... ) ................................................. 11  1.1.2  Causes of Software Defects (K2 .................................... s e 2) ................................................. 11  1.1.3  Role of Testing in S f Software Dev velopment, Maintenance and Operations (K2) ............... 11  M 1.1.4  Testing and Quality (K2) ........... g y ................................................. 11  ........................................ 1.1.5  How Much Testing is Enough? (K2) ................................ ................................................. 12  1.2  What is Testing? (K2) .................... ................................................. 13  ........................................ 1.3  Seven Testing Princip ples (K2) ....... ................................................. 14  ........................................ 1.4  Fundamental Test Pro ocess (K1) ... ................................................. 15  ........................................ 1.4   Test Planning and C 4.1 Control (K1) ....................................... ................................................. 15  1.4   Test An 4.2 nalysis and D Design (K1) . ................................................. 15  ........................................ 1.4   Test Im 4.3 mplementatio and Execu on ution (K1)......................... ................................................. 16  1.4   Evaluating Exit Crit 4.4 teria and Rep porting (K1) ..................... ................................................. 16  1.4   Test Cl 4.5 losure Activit ties (K1) ...... ................................................. 16  ........................................ 1.5  The Psych hology of Testing (K2) .... ................................................. 18  ........................................ 1.6  Code of E Ethics ............................... ................................................. 20  ........................................2.  Tes sting Throug ghout the Sof ftware Life C Cycle (K2) ......................... ................................................. 21  2.1  Software Developmen Models (K2 .................................... nt 2) ................................................. 22  2.1.1  V-mode (Sequentia Development Model) (K2) .............. el al ................................................. 22  2.1.2  Iterative e-incrementa Development Models (K2) ............. al ( ................................................. 22  2.1.3  Testing within a Life Cycle Model (K2) ............................ g e ................................................. 22  2.2  Test Leve (K2) ............................ els ................................................. 24  ........................................ 2.2   Compo 2.1 onent Testing (K2) ........... g ................................................. 24  ........................................ 2.2   Integra 2.2 ation Testing (K2) ............ ................................................. 25  ........................................ 2.2   System Testing (K2 ................. 2.3 m 2) ................................................. 26  ........................................ 2.2   Acceptance Testing (K2)........... 2.4 g ................................................. 26  ........................................ 2.3  Test Type (K2) ............................. es ................................................. 28  ........................................ 2.3   Testing of Function (Functional Testing) (K2 ................. 3.1 g n 2) ................................................. 28  2.3   Testing of Non-func 3.2 g ctional Softw ware Characte eristics (Non n-functional T Testing) (K2) ......... 28  2.3   Testing of Software Structure/A 3.3 g e Architecture (Structural Te esting) (K2) .............................. 29  2.3   Testing Related to Changes: Re 3.4 g e-testing and Regression Testing (K2 ........................... 29  d n 2) 2.4  Maintenan Testing ( nce (K2) ............. ................................................. 30  ........................................3.  Sta Techniqu (K2)........................... atic ues ................................................. 31  ........................................ 3.1  Static Tec chniques and the Test Pr d rocess (K2) ...................... ................................................. 32  3.2  Review Process (K2) ..................... ................................................. 33  ........................................ 3.2   Activitie of a Form Review (K ................................... 2.1 es mal K1) ................................................. 33  3.2   Roles a Respons 2.2 and sibilities (K1) ....................................... ) ................................................. 33  3.2   Types o Reviews ( 2.3 of (K2) .............. ................................................. 34  ........................................ 3.2   Succes Factors fo Reviews (K ................................... 2.4 ss or K2) ................................................. 35  3.3  Static Ana alysis by Too (K2) ........ ols ................................................. 36  ........................................4.  Tes Design Te st echniques (K ................ K4) ................................................. 37  ........................................ 4.1  The Test Developmen Process (K ................................... nt K3) ................................................. 38  4.2  Categorie of Test De es esign Techniq ques (K2) ........................ ................................................. 39 Version 2 2011 Page 4 of 78 7 31-Mar r-2011© Internationa Software Testing Q al Qualifications Board
  5. 5. International Certif fied Teste er Software Te esting Founda ation Level Sy yllabus Q Qualifications Board s 4.3  Specificat tion-based or Black-box T r Techniques (K3) ............. ( ................................................. 40  4.3   Equivalence Partitio 3.1 oning (K3) ... ................................................. 40  ........................................ 4.3   Bounda Value An 3.2 ary nalysis (K3) .. ................................................. 40  ........................................ 4.3   Decisio Table Tes 3.3 on sting (K3) ..... ................................................. 40  ........................................ 4.3   State T 3.4 Transition Testing (K3) .... ................................................. 41  ........................................ 4.3   Use Ca Testing ( 3.5 ase (K2).............. ................................................. 41  ........................................ 4.4  Structure- -based or Wh hite-box Techniques (K4 .................. 4) ................................................. 42  4.4   Statem 4.1 ment Testing a Coverag (K4) ............................ and ge ................................................. 42  4.4   Decisio Testing an Coverage (K4) ............................... 4.2 on nd e ................................................. 42  4.4   Other S 4.3 Structure-bas Techniqu (K1) .......................... sed ues ................................................. 42  4.5  Experienc ce-based Tec chniques (K2 ..................................... 2) ................................................. 43  4.6  Choosing Test Techni iques (K2).... ................................................. 44  ........................................5.  Tes Management (K3) .......................... st ................................................. 45  ........................................ 5.1  Test Orga anization (K2 .................. 2) ................................................. 47  ........................................ 5.1.1  Test Organization a Independ and dence (K2) ...................... ................................................. 47  5.1.2  Tasks o the Test L of Leader and T Tester (K1) ....................... ................................................. 47  5.2  Test Planning and Est timation (K3)....................................... ) ................................................. 49  5.2   Test Planning (K2) .................... 2.1 ................................................. 49  ........................................ 5.2   Test Planning Activ 2.2 vities (K3) ..... ................................................. 49  ........................................ 5.2   Entry C 2.3 Criteria (K2) ..................... ................................................. 49  ........................................ 5.2   Exit Criteria (K2)........................ 2.4 ................................................. 49  ........................................ 5.2   Test Es 2.5 stimation (K2 ................. 2) ................................................. 50  ........................................ 5.2   Test St 2.6 trategy, Test Approach (K .................................. t K2) ................................................. 50  5.3  Test Prog gress Monitor ring and Con ntrol (K2) ......................... ................................................. 51  5.3   Test Pr 3.1 rogress Monitoring (K1) .. ................................................. 51  ........................................ 5.3   Test Re 3.2 eporting (K2)................... ................................................. 51  ........................................ 5.3   Test Co 3.3 ontrol (K2)....................... ................................................. 51  ........................................ 5.4  Configura ation Manage ement (K2) ... ................................................. 52  ........................................ 5.5  Risk and T Testing (K2) .................... ................................................. 53  ........................................ 5.5   Project Risks (K2) ..................... 5.1 t ................................................. 53  ........................................ 5.5   Produc Risks (K2) .................... 5.2 ct ................................................. 53  ........................................ 5.6  Incident M Management (K3) ............ ................................................. 55  ........................................6.  Too Support fo Testing (K2 ol or 2)................. ................................................. 57  ........................................ 6.1  Types of T Test Tools (K ............... K2) ................................................. 58  ........................................ 6.1.1  Tool Su upport for Te esting (K2) ... ................................................. 58  ........................................ 6.1.2  Test To Classifica ool ation (K2) ..... ................................................. 58  ........................................ 6.1.3  Tool Su upport for Ma anagement o Testing an Tests (K1) ............................................... 59  of nd ) 6.1.4  Tool Su upport for Sta Testing (K1) ................................ atic ................................................. 59  6.1.5  Tool Su upport for Te Specificat est tion (K1) .......................... ................................................. 59  6.1.6  Tool Su upport for Te Execution and Loggin (K1) ......... est n ng ................................................. 60  6.1.7  Tool Su upport for Pe erformance a Monitorin (K1)......... and ng ................................................. 60  6.1.8  Tool Su upport for Sp pecific Testin Needs (K1 ................. ng 1) ................................................. 60  6.2  Effective U of Tools Potential B Use s: Benefits and Risks (K2) .. ................................................. 62  6.2   Potential Benefits a Risks of Tool Suppor for Testing (for all tools (K2) ................... 62  2.1 and rt s) 6.2   Special Considerations for Som Types of Tools (K1) .... 2.2 me T ................................................. 62  6.3  Introducin a Tool into an Organiz ng o zation (K1) ....................... ................................................. 64 7.  References ...... ........................................ ................................................. 65  ........................................ Standdards ............ ........................................ ................................................. 65  ........................................ Bookss................... ........................................ ................................................. 65  ........................................8.  Appendix A – S Syllabus Background ....... ................................................. 67  ........................................ Histor of this Doc ry cument ............................ ................................................. 67  ........................................ Objecctives of the F Foundation C Certificate Qualification ...................... ................................................. 67  Objecctives of the I International Qualification (adapted frn rom ISTQB m meeting at So ollentuna, Novem mber 2001).. ........................................ ................................................. 67  ........................................ Entry Requiremen for this Qu nts ualification ... ................................................. 67  ........................................Version 2 2011 Page 5 of 78 7 31-Mar r-2011© Internationa Software Testing Q al Qualifications Board
  6. 6. International Certif fied Teste er Software Te esting Founda ation Level Sy yllabus Q Qualifications Board s Backgground and H History of the Foundation Certificate in Software T e n Testing ..................................... 68 9.  Appendix B – L Learning Obje ectives/Cogn nitive Level of Knowledge ............................................... 69  o e Level 1: Remember (K1) ............................ ................................................. 69  ........................................ Level 2: Understand (K2) ........................... ................................................. 69  ........................................ Level 3: Apply (K3 ..................................... 3) ................................................. 69  ........................................ Level 4: Analyze ( (K4) ................................. ................................................. 69  ........................................10.  Appendix C – Rules App A plied to the IS STQB ............................... ................................................. 71  Founddation Syllab ................................... bus ................................................. 71  ........................................ 10.   Genera Rules ........................... .1.1 al ................................................. 71  ........................................ 10.   Current Content ........................ .1.2 ................................................. 71  ........................................ 10.   Learnin Objectives .................. .1.3 ng s ................................................. 71  ........................................ 10.   Overall Structure ....................... .1.4 l ................................................. 71  ........................................11.  Appendix D – Notice to T A Training Prov viders .............................. ................................................. 73 12.  Appendix E – Release Notes............. A ................................................. 74  ........................................ Relea 2010 ...... ase ........................................ ................................................. 74  ........................................ Relea 2011 ...... ase ........................................ ................................................. 74  ........................................13.  Index ........... ........................................ ................................................. 76  ........................................Version 2 2011 Page 6 of 78 7 31-Mar r-2011© Internationa Software Testing Q al Qualifications Board
  7. 7. International Certif fied Teste er Software Te esting Founda ation Level Sy yllabus Q Qualifications Board sAckno owledgementsInternatio onal Softwar Testing Qu re ualifications Board Working Group Fooundation Leevel (Edition 2011):Thomas Müller (chair), Debra Friedenberg. T core team thanks the review team (Dan Almog The m m g,Armin Be Rex Black, Julie Gar eer, rdiner, Judy McKay, Tuul Pääkköne Eric Riou du Cosquier Hans la en, rSchaefer, Stephanie Ulrich, Erik van Veenendaal) and all National Booards for the suggestions forthe curre version o the syllabus. ent ofInternatio onal Softwar Testing Qu re ualifications Board Working Group Fo oundation Le evel (Edition 2010):Thomas Müller (chair), Rahul Verma, Martin K Klonk and Arrmin Beer. T core team thanks the The mreview te eam (Rex Bla ack, Mette B Bruhn-Peders son, Debra Friedenberg, Klaus Olsen Judy McKa F n, ay,Tuula Päääkkönen, MMeile Posthum Hans Sc ma, chaefer, Step phanie Ulrich, Pete William Erik van ms,Veenend daal) and all National Boa ards for their suggestions r s.Internatio ualifications Board Working Group Fo onal Softwar Testing Qu re oundation Le evel (Edition 2007):Thomas Müller (chair), Dorothy G Graham, Deb Friedenberg, and Erik van Veenendaal. The core bra k cteam thaanks the revie team (Ha Schaefer Stephanie Ulrich, Meile Posthuma, Anders ew ans r, ePettersson, and Won Kwon) and all the National Boards for their sug nil d ggestions.Internatio ualifications Board Working Group Fo onal Softwar Testing Qu re evel (Edition 2005): oundation LeThomas Müller (chair), Rex Black Sigrid Eldh Dorothy Graham, Klau Olsen, Ma k, h, G us aaret Pyhäjärrvi,Geoff Thhompson and Erik van Ve d eenendaal an the review team and a National B nd w all Boards for theirsuggestions.Version 2 2011 Page 7 of 78 7 31-Mar r-2011© Internationa Software Testing Q al Qualifications Board
  8. 8. International Certif fied Teste er Software Te esting Founda ation Level Sy yllabus Q Qualifications Board sIntrod duction to this Syllabus n sPurpo of this Docume ose s entThis sylla abus forms t basis for the International Softwar Testing Qualification a the Founda the re at ationLevel. Th Internatio he onal Software Testing Qualifications Board (ISTQB provides it to the Natio e B B) onalBoards f them to accredit the tr for ders and to derive examination quest raining provid d tions in their locallanguage Training p e. providers will determine a appropriate te eaching meth hods and prooduce course eware editation. The syllabus w help candidates in their preparation for the exafor accre will amination.Information on the history and baackground of the syllabus can be foun in Append A. f s nd dixThe C Certified T Tester Foundation Level in Software Testing eThe Foundation Leve qualificatio is aimed a anyone inv el on at volved in softtware testing This includ g. despeople in roles such as testers, te analysts, test enginee test cons n est , ers, sultants, test managers, user tacceptan testers a software developers. This Founda nce and ation Level q qualification i also appro is opriatefor anyone who want a basic un ts nderstanding of software testing, such as project m h managers, qualitymanager software developmen managers, business an rs, nt nalysts, IT dir rectors and mmanagementconsultaants. Holders of the Foundation Certif ficate will be able to go on to a higher n r-level softwa aretesting q qualification.Learni Objec ing ctives/Co ognitive Level of Knowledge K eLearning objectives a indicated for each section in this syllabus and classified as follows: g are d s d so K1: rremembero K2: uunderstando K3: aapplyo K4: aanalyzeFurther d details and e examples of l learning obje ectives are given in Appe endix B.All terms listed under “Terms” jus below chap heading shall be re s st pter gs (K1), even if not emembered (explicitly mentioned in the learnin objectives y ng s.The E Examinatio onThe Foundation Leve Certificate examination will be base on this sy el n ed yllabus. Answ wers toexaminaation question may require the use o material ba ns of ased on more than one section of this e ssyllabus. All sections of the syllab are exam s bus minable.The form of the exa mat amination is multiple cho oice.Exams m be taken as part of a accredited training cou may n an d urse or taken independen (e.g., at an n ntly aexamina ation center o in a public exam). Com or mpletion of an accredited training cou a d urse is not a pre-requisite for the exam e m.Accred ditationAn ISTQ National B QB Board may accredit training providers whose cour material f s rse follows thissyllabus. Training pro oviders shou obtain acc uld creditation guidelines from the board or body that tperforms the accreditation. An ac s ccredited cou urse is recoggnized as con nforming to this syllabus, andis allowe to have an ISTQB exa ed n amination as part of the course.Further g guidance for training prov viders is give in Append D. en dixVersion 2 2011 Page 8 of 78 7 31-Mar r-2011© Internationa Software Testing Q al Qualifications Board
  9. 9. International Certif fied Teste er Software Te esting Founda ation Level Sy yllabus Q Qualifications Board sLevel of DetailThe leve of detail in this syllabus allows inter el s rnationally co onsistent teaching and ex xamination. Inorder to achieve this goal, the syllabus consis of: stso General instructional objectiv describin the intentio of the Fou ves ng on undation Lev velo A list of informati to teach, including a d ion description, and referenc to additio a ces onal sources if requuiredo Lear rning objectiv for each knowledge a ves area, describ bing the cognnitive learning outcome and a minddset to be acchievedo A list of terms tha students m at must be able to recall and understand e d do A de escription of t key conc the cepts to teach, including sources such as accepte literature or s h ed o standardsThe sylla abus content is not a des t scription of th entire kno he owledge area of software testing; it ref a flectsthe level of detail to b covered in Foundation Level traini courses. be n n ingHow th Syllab is Or his bus rganizedThere ar six major c re chapters. The top-level h heading for each chapter shows the hhighest level oflearning objectives th is covere within the chapter and specifies the time for the chapter. Fo hat ed e e orexamplee:2. Tes sting Thr roughout the Sof t ftware Life Cycle (K2) 115 min nutesThis heaading shows that Chapter 2 has learning objective of K1 (ass r es sumed when a higher level isshown) a K2 (but n K3), and it is intended to take 115 minutes to teach the material in the and not d 5 echapter. Within each chapter there are a num mber of sectio ons. Each seection also ha the learning asobjective and the am es mount of time required. S e Subsections that do not h have a time ggiven are includedwithin the time for the section. eVersion 2 2011 Page 9 of 78 7 31-Mar r-2011© Internationa Software Testing Q al Qualifications Board
  10. 10. International Certif fied Teste er Software Te esting Founda ation Level Sy yllabus Q Qualifications Board s1. Fundam mentals of Test ting (K2 2) 15 minu 55 utesLearni Objec ing ctives for Fundam r mentals of Testing fThe obje ectives identify what you will be able t do followin the compl to ng letion of each module. h1.1 Wh is Testing Necess hy sary? (K2)LO-1.1.1 1 Describe with examples, the way in which a defect in sof e, y ftware can ca ause harm to a o person, t the enviro to onment or to a company (K2)(LO-1.1.2 2 Distinguish between the root cau of a defec and its effe use ct ects (K2)LO-1.1.3 3 Give rea asons why testing is nece essary by givving example (K2) esLO-1.1.4 4 Describe why testing is part of qu e g uality assurance and give examples o how testing e of contribut to higher quality (K2) tes rLO-1.1.5 5 Explain a compare the terms e and e error, defect, fault, failure and the cor e, rresponding terms mistake and bug, usi examples (K2) ing s1.2 Wh is Testing? (K2) hatLO-1.2.1 1 Recall th common o he objectives of testing (K1) fLO-1.2.2 2 Provide examples for the objectiv of testing in different phases of th software life ves g he cycle (K2 2)LO-1.2.3 3 Different tiate testing f from debugg ging (K2)1.3 Sev Testin Princip ven ng ples (K2)LO-1.3.1 1 Explain t seven pr the rinciples in te esting (K2)1.4 Fun ndamenta Test Pro al ocess (K1) )LO-1.4.1 1 Recall th five fundamental test a he activities and respective t d tasks from planning to closure (K1)1.5 The Psychology of Tes e sting (K2) )LO-1.5.1 1 Recall th psycholog he gical factors tthat influence the succes of testing ( e ss (K1)LO-1.5.2 2 Contrast the mindset of a tester a of a deve t t and eloper (K2)Version 2 2011 Page 10 of 78 31-Ma ar-2011© Internationa Software Testing Q al Qualifications Board
  11. 11. International Certif fied Teste er Software Te esting Founda ation Level Sy yllabus Q Qualifications Board s1.1 Why is Testing Necess g sary (K2 2) 20 minut tesTermsBug, def fect, error, fa ailure, fault, m mistake, qual lity, risk1.1.1 Software Systems Context ( e s (K1)Software systems ar an integral part of life, f e re l from busines applications (e.g., ban ss nking) to cons sumerproducts (e.g., cars). Most people have had a experienc with softwa that did n work as s . e an ce are notexpected Software t d. that does not work correc can lead to many pro t ctly oblems, including loss ofmoney, t time or busin ness reputation, and coul even caus injury or de ld se eath.1.1.2 Causes o Softwar Defects (K2) of re sA human being can m n make an erro (mistake), which produ or uces a defect (fault, bug) in the progra amcode, or in a docume If a defec in code is executed, th system ma fail to do w ent. ct he ay what it shoul do ld(or do soomething it shouldn’t), ca ausing a failure. Defects in software, s systems or ddocuments may mresult in failures, but not all defec do so. ctsDefects occur because human be eings are fallible and bec cause there is time press sure, complexxcode, co omplexity of infrastructure changing t e, technologies, and/or man system int ny teractions.Failures can be caus by enviro sed onmental connditions as well. For example, radiati w ion, magnetissm,electroni fields, and pollution can cause faults in firmwar or influenc the execut ic re ce tion of softwa by arechanging the hardwa conditions. g are1.1.3 Role of TTesting in Software Developm ment, Main ntenance a andOperattions (K2) systems and documentati can help to reduce th risk of problems occurringRigorous testing of s s ion heduring operation and contribute to the quality of the software system, if the defects found are d o s eleased for operational uscorrected before the system is re d se.Software testing may also be req e y quired to mee contractua or legal req et al quirements, o industry-specific orstandard ds.1.1.4 Testing a and Qualit (K2) tyWith the help of testing, it is poss sible to meas sure the qual of software in terms o defects fou lity of und,for both f functional an non-functi nd ional softwar requireme re ents and char racteristics (e e.g., reliabilit ty,usability, efficiency, m maintainability and portabbility). For more information on non-fu unctional tes stingsee Cha apter 2; for more informat tion on software characte eristics see ‘S Software Eng gineering –Software Product Qu e uality’ (ISO 9126).Testing c give con can nfidence in th quality of t software if it finds few or no defec A proper he the w cts. rlydesigned test that pa d asses reduce the overall level of risk in a system When testing does find es k m. ddefects, the quality o the softwar system inc of re creases whe those defe en ects are fixed d.Lessons should be le s ojects. By understanding the root causes of defec earned from previous pro ctsfound in other projec processe can be imp cts, es proved, whic in turn sho ch ould prevent those defect from tsreoccurring and, as a consequennce, improve the quality of future syst o tems. This is an aspect of oquality assurance.Testing s should be int tegrated as o of the qu one uality assurance activities (i.e., alongs s side develop pmentstandard training and defect an ds, nalysis).Version 2 2011 Page 11 of 78 31-Ma ar-2011© Internationa Software Testing Q al Qualifications Board
  12. 12. International Certif fied Teste er Software Te esting Founda ation Level Sy yllabus Q Qualifications Board s1.1.5 How Muc Testing is Enoug ch g gh? (K2)Deciding how much t g testing is eno ough should take accoun of the leve of risk, inclu nt el uding technic cal,safety, a business risks, and p and s project constr raints such as time and b a budget. Risk is discussed k dfurther in Chapter 5. nTesting s should provid sufficient information t stakeholders to make informed decisions abou the de to utrelease o the softwa or system being teste for the next development step or h of are m ed, handover tocustomeers.Version 2 2011 Page 12 of 78 31-Ma ar-2011© Internationa Software Testing Q al Qualifications Board
  13. 13. International Certif fied Teste er Software Te esting Founda ation Level Sy yllabus Q Qualifications Board s1.2 What is Testing? (K2) s 30 minut tesTermsDebugging, requirem ment, review, test case, te esting, test objective oBackgr roundA common perceptio of testing i that it only consists of running tests i.e., execu on is y s, uting the softw ware.This is p of testing but not all o the testing activities. part g, of gTest acti ivities exist b before and af test exec fter cution. Thes activities in se nclude plann ning and conttrol,choosing test conditions, designing and exec g cuting test cases, checkin results, ev ng valuating exit t reporting on the testing pcriteria, r process and system unde test, and fi er completing closure inalizing or cactivities after a test phase has b s been complet ted. Testing also includes reviewing d s documents(including source cod and cond de) ducting static analysis. cBoth dyn esting can be used as a means for ac namic testing and static te g chieving sim milar objective es, rmation that c be used to improve both the systand will provide infor can b tem being tes sted and the edevelopm ment and tessting process ses.Testing c have the following ob can e bjectives:o Finding defectso Gain ning confiden about the level of qua nce e alityo Prov viding information for dec cision-making go Prev venting defecctsThe thouught process and activitie involved in designing tests early in the life cycle (verifying the s es n t etest basis via test design) can he to prevent defects from being intro elp t m oduced into ccode. Review of wsdocumen (e.g., req nts quirements) a the ident and tification and resolution o issues also help to prev d of o ventdefects a appearing in the code.Different viewpoints in testing tak different o t ke objectives into account. F example, in developm o For menttesting (e e.g., componnent, integrattion and systtem testing), the main obbjective may be to cause asmany fai ilures as pos ssible so that defects in th software are identified and can be fixed. In t he a d eacceptan testing, t main obje nce the ective may b to confirm that the system works as expected, to begain connfidence that it has met th requireme he ents. In some cases the m e main objectiv of testing may vebe to asssess the qua of the so ality oftware (with no intention of fixing defeects), to give information to e nstakeholders of the r of releasing the syste at a given time. Maint risk em n tenance testi often incl ing ludestesting th no new d hat defects have been introdu uced during development of the chan d nges. Duringoperational testing, the main objeective may be to assess system chara s acteristics su as reliab uch bility oravailability.Debugging and testin are differe Dynamic testing can show failure that are ca ng ent. c es aused by def fects.Debugging is the dev velopment ac ctivity that fin nds, analyzes and remov the cause of the failur ves e re.Subsequuent re-testin by a tester ensures tha the fix doe indeed res ng at es solve the failure. Theresponsi ibility for thes activities i usually tes se is sters test and developers debug. d sThe proc cess of testin and the te ng esting activitie are explained in Section 1.4. esVersion 2 2011 Page 13 of 78 31-Ma ar-2011© Internationa Software Testing Q al Qualifications Board
  14. 14. International Certif fied Teste er Software Te esting Founda ation Level Sy yllabus Q Qualifications Board s1.3 Seven Testing Principles (K2) ) 35 minut tesTermsExhaustive testingPrincip plesA numbe of testing p er principles ha been sug ave ggested over the past 40 years and offer general rguideline common f all testing es for g.Principle 1 – Testing shows pre esence of d defectsTesting c show tha defects are present, bu cannot pro that there are no defe can at ut ove e ects. Testing greduces the probability of undisco overed defec remaining in the softw cts g ware but, eve if no defec are en ctsfound, it is not a proo of correctn of ness.Principle 2 – Exhau ustive testing is imposs sibleTesting eeverything (a combinatio of inputs and precon all ons s nditions) is no feasible ex ot xcept for trivi ialcases. Innstead of exh haustive test alysis and priorities should be used to focus testing ting, risk ana d oefforts.Principle 3 – Early ttestingTo find d vities shall be started as early as pos defects early, testing activ ssible in the s software or system sdevelopmment life cycle, and shall be focused on defined objectives. oPrinciple 4 – Defect clustering tTesting e effort shall be focused pr e roportionally to the expec cted and later observed ddefect density of ymodules A small number of mod s. dules usually contains mo of the def y ost fects discove ered during pre- prelease t testing, or is responsible for most of t operation failures. the nalPrinciple 5 – Pestic cide paradox xIf the sam tests are repeated ov and over again, event me ver tually the sam set of tes cases will no me stlonger fin any new d nd defects. To o overcome thi “pesticide paradox”, test cases nee to be regu is ed ularlyreviewed and revised and new a different tests need to be written t exercise d d d, and o to different parts of sthe softwware or syste to find potentially mor defects. em rePrinciple 6 – Testing is context dependent t tTesting i done differ is rently in diffe erent context For example, safety-critical softwa is tested ts. aredifferentl from an e- ly -commerce s site.Principle 7 – Absen nce-of-errors fallacy sFinding a fixing de and efects does n help if the system built is unusable and does n fulfill the users’ not e e notneeds an expectatio nd ons.Version 2 2011 Page 14 of 78 31-Ma ar-2011© Internationa Software Testing Q al Qualifications Board
  15. 15. International Certif fied Teste er Software Te esting Founda ation Level Sy yllabus Q Qualifications Board s1.4 Fundam mental T Test Pro ocess (K K1) 35 minut tesTermsConfirmaation testing, re-testing, e criteria, incident, regr , exit ression testin test basis test condit ng, s, tion, erage, test da test execution, test log, test plan, test procedtest cove ata, dure, test policy, test suite test e,summary report, test y twareBackgr roundThe mos visible part of testing is test executi st t s ion. But to be effective an efficient, t e nd test plans sh houldalso inclu time to b spent on p ude be planning the tests, designing test casses, preparin for execution ngand eval luating result ts.The fund damental tes process co st onsists of the following ma activities: aino Test planning an control t ndo Test analysis and design to Test implementa t ation and exe ecutiono Evaluating exit c criteria and re eportingo Test closure activities tAlthough logically se h equential, the activities in the process may overlap or take plac concurren e p ce ntly.Tailoring these main activities wit g thin the context of the system and the project is u e usually requir red.1.4.1 Test Plan nning and Control ( d (K1)Test plannning is the a activity of de efining the ob bjectives of te esting and th specificatio of test ac he on ctivitiesin order to meet the oobjectives an mission. ndTest con ntrol is the on ngoing activit of comparing actual pr ty rogress again the plan, and reportin the nst ng ncluding deviations from the plan. It instatus, in nvolves takin actions ne ng ecessary to mmeet the misssionand obje ectives of the project. In o e order to contr testing, th testing activities shoul be monitor rol he ld redthrougho the projec Test planning takes in account the feedback from monito out ct. nto k oring and con ntrolactivities s. nning and coTest plan ontrol tasks a defined in Chapter 5 of this syllab are n o bus.1.4.2 Test Ana alysis and Design (K K1)Test anaalysis and deesign is the a activity during which gene testing objectives are transformed into g eral e dtangible test conditio and test c ons cases.The test analysis and design acti d ivity has the following ma tasks: ajoro Revi iewing the te basis (suc as require est ch ware integrity level1 (risk level), risk ements, softw y analysis reports, architecture design, inte e, erface specif fications)o Evaluating testab bility of the te basis and test objects est d so Identifying and p prioritizing tes conditions based on an st nalysis of tes items, the specification st n, behaavior and struucture of the software eo Desi igning and prioritizing hig level test c gh caseso Identifying neces ssary test data to support the test con t nditions and test caseso Desi igning the tes environme setup and identifying any required infrastructu and tools st ent d d ureo Crea ating bi-direc ctional tracea ability betwee test basis and test cas en ses1 The degr to which sof ree ftware complies or must comply with a set of stakeholder-sele s y s ected software a and/or software- -basedsystem cha aracteristics (e.g software com g., mplexity, risk as ssessment, safe level, securit level, desired performance, ety tyreliability, o cost) which a defined to re or are eflect the importa ance of the soft tware to its stak keholders.Version 2 2011 Page 15 of 78 31-Ma ar-2011© Internationa Software Testing Q al Qualifications Board

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