Ppt of c vs c#


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Ppt of c vs c#

  2. 2. HISTORY OF C AND C SHARP C sharp was developed by Microsoft within its .NET initiative. C sharp is one of the programming language designed for the common language infrastructure. C was developed by DENNIS RITCHIE at the Bell Telephone laboratories for use with the unix operating system
  3. 3. FEATURES OF C Structured programming language. General purpose programming language. Widely used in the development of system software. Contains rich set of operators and data types. C allows the user to add functions to the library. C is highly portable. Most of the C programs can be processed on many different computers with little or no alteration.
  4. 4. FEATURES OF C SHARP It is simple, modern, object oriented language derived from C++ and JAVA . It aims to combine the high productivity of VISUAL BASIC and the raw power of C ++. It is a part of Microsoft Visual Studio 7.0. It supports garbage collection, automatic memory management and a lot. In C# Microsoft has taken care of C++ problems such as Memory management, pointers etc. In C# there is no usage of &quot;::&quot; or &quot;->&quot; operators. <ul><li>It is simple, modern, object o </li></ul>
  7. 7. EXAMPLE OF C #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() { printf(“welcome to C”); getch(); } Output: welcome to C
  8. 8. EXAMPLE OF C SHARP Using system; class hello { static void main() { console.writeline(“welcome to C sharp”); } } Output: welcome to C sharp
  9. 9. LOOPS IN C For loop syntax of for loop:- for(initialisation;test condition;increamen / decreament) { set of statements; } while loop syntax of while loop:- while(test condition) { set of statements; increament / decreament; } Do while loop syntax of do while loop:- do { set of statements: increament / decreament; }while(test condition);
  10. 10. LOOPS IN C SHARP For loop syntax of for loop for(initialisation:test condition;increament / decreament) { set of statements; } While loop syntax of while loop while(test condition) { set of statements; increament / decreament; } continue...
  11. 11. Do while loop syntax of do while loop do { set of statements; increament / decreament; }while(test condition); Foreach loop syntax of foreach loop foreach(DataType var in DataTypeCollection) { set of statements; } continue...
  12. 12. CONDITIONAL STATEMENTS C and C# have following two types of conditional statements:- IF STATEMENT Syntax :- if(condition) { statement1; } else { statement 2' } SWITCH STATEMENT Syntax: switch(expression) { case constant1 : statement sequence1; break; case constant2 : statement sequence2; break; case constant (n-1) : statement sequence(n-1) ; break; default : statement; }
  13. 13. FUNCTION IN C A function in C language is a block of code that performs a specific task. It has a name and it is reusable i.e. it can be executed from as many different parts in a C Program as required. It also optionally returns a value to the calling program. Structure of a Function A general form of a C function looks like this: <return type> FunctionName (Argument1, Argument2, Argument3……) { Statement1; Statement2; Statement3; }
  14. 14. Example of a simple function to add two integers #include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void add(int x,int y) { int result; result = x+y; printf(&quot;Sum of %d and %d is %d.nn&quot;,x,y,result); } void main() { clrscr(); add(10,15); add(55,64); getch(); } Output: sum of 10 and 15 is 25 sum of 55 and 64 is 119
  15. 15. PASSING ARGUMENTS TO FUNCTION We can pass arguments to a function by following two ways: 1)Call by Value 2)Call by Reference 1) Call by Value: In Call by Value, only the values taken by the arguments are sent to the function. In call by value any changes made to the formal arguments do not cause any change to the actual arguments. 2) Call by Reference: In Call by Reference, only the addresses taken by the arguments are sent to the function. In call by reference any changes made to the formal arguments cause changes to the actual arguments.
  16. 16. FUNCTION IN C SHARP To define a C# function you must declare it outside the main() block. Structure of function A function in C sharp look like this <visibility><return type><function name>(<parameter>) { statement1; statement2; statement3; }
  17. 17. C# Function Parameters C# methods can accept values when a variable calls it. using System; class Program { static int Multiply(int x) //accepts only a int value { return x * 2; } static void Main() { int z = 3; Console.WriteLine(Multiply(z)); //Prints the returned value Console.Read(); } } Output: 6
  18. 18. C# CALL BY REFERENCE In c# , call by reference can be done by using ref and out modifier. The difference between ref and out modifier is that a value passed to ref modifier has to be initialised before calling the method whereas this is not true for out modifier.
  19. 19. By ref modifier using System; class Program { static void AddOne(ref int x) { x = x + 1; } static void Main() { int z = 8; AddOne(ref z); // variable z will be changed in function Console.WriteLine(z); Console.Read(); } } Output: 9
  20. 20. BY OUT MODIFIER using System ; class Program { static int AddOne(out int x) { int y = 90; x = 19; // out variable must be initialized x = x + 1; return y + 1; } static void Main() { int z; // out variable must be unassigned be declared Console.WriteLine(AddOne(out z)); Console.WriteLine(z); Console.Read(); } } Output : 91 20
  21. 21. ARRAY IN C AND C SHARP Array is a collection of same type elements under the same variable identifier referenced by index number . Arrays are of two types single dimension array and multi-dimension array. Each of these array type can be of either static array or dynamic array. Static arrays have their sizes declared from the start and the size cannot be changed after declaration. Dynamic arrays that allow you to dynamically change their size at runtime. A single dimension array is represented be a single column, whereas a multiple dimensional array would span out n columns by n rows.
  22. 22. SINGLE DIMENSION ARRAYS Declaring Single Dimension Arrays Arrays can be declared using any of the data types available in C and C#.You can declare a single dimensional array as follows: <data type> array_name[size_of_array]; Initializing Single Dimension Arrays Array can be initialized in two ways: initializing on declaration <data type> array_name[size_of_array] = {element 1, element 2, ...}; Initialized by Assignment <data type>array_name[size_of_dimension1][size_of_dimension2]; array_name[0]=element1; array_name[1]=element2; . . array_name[size_of_array]=element n;
  23. 23. MULTIDIMENSION ARRAY Declaring Multidimensional Arrays To declare a multidimensional array: <data type> array_name[size_of_first_dimension][size_of_second_dimension] ... Initializing Multidimensional Arrays Initialisation on declaration <data type> array_name[size_of_dimension1][size_of_second_dimension2] ... = {element 1, element 2, element 3, …}, Initialization on assignment int marks[2][4]: marks[0][0]=1; marks[0][1]=2; marks[0][2]=3; marks[0][3]=4; marks[1][0]=6; marks[1][1]=7; marks[1][2]=8;marks[1][3]=9;
  24. 24. JAGGED ARRAY A jagged array is an array whose elements are arrays. The elements of a jagged array can be of different dimensions and sizes. A jagged array is sometimes called an &quot;array of arrays.&quot; A special type of array is introduced in C#. A Jagged Array is an array of an array in which the length of each array index can differ. Example: int[][] jagArray = new int[5][ ]; In the above declaration the rows are fixed in size. But columns are not specified as they can vary.
  25. 25. DECLARING AND INITIALIZING JAGGED ARRAY DECLARATION int[][] jaggedArray = new int[5][]; jaggedArray[0] = new int[3]; jaggedArray[1] = new int[5]; jaggedArray[2] = new int[2]; jaggedArray[3] = new int[8]; jaggedArray[4] = new int[10]; INITIALISATION jaggedArray[0] = new int[] { 3, 5, 7, }; jaggedArray[1] = new int[] { 1, 0, 2, 4, 6 }; jaggedArray[2] = new int[] { 1, 6 }; jaggedArray[3] = new int[] { 1, 0, 2, 4, 6, 45, 67, 78 }; jaggedArray[4] = new int[] { 1, 0, 2, 4, 6, 34, 54, 67, 87, 78 };
  26. 26. POINTER IN C AND C SHARP C and C# both supports the pointer concept. But in C# pointer can only be declared to hold the memory address of value types and arrays pointers are not allowed to point to a reference type or even to a structure type which contains a reference type Declaring a Pointer type The general form of declaring a pointer type is as shown below type *variable_name; Where * is known as the de-reference operator. For example the following statement int *x ; Declares a pointer variable x, which can hold the address of an int type. The reference operator (&) can be used to get the memory address of a variable. int x = 100; The &x gives the memory address of the variable x, which we can assign to a pointer variable int *ptr = & x;
  27. 27. OOPS CONCEPT IN C# Key Concepts of Object Orientation * Abstraction * Encapsulation * Polymorphism * Inheritance Abstraction is the ability to generalize an object as a data type that has a specific set of characteristics and is able to perform a set of actions. Object-oriented languages provide abstraction via classes. Classes define the properties and methods of an object type. Classes are declared using the keyword class, as shown in the following example: public class Draw { // Class code. }
  28. 28. ACCESS MODIFIER ACCESS MODIFIER DESCRIPTION private Only members within the same type Protected Only derived types or members of the same type Internal Only code within the same assembly. Can also be code external to object as long as it is in the same assembly. Protected internal Either code from derived type or code in the same assembly. Combination of protected OR internal. public Any code. No inheritance, external type, or external assembly restrictions.
  29. 29. ENCAPSULATION Encapsulation is the procedure of covering up of data and functions into a single unit (called class). An encapsulated object is often called an abstract data type.Encapsulation provides a way to protect data from accidental corruption. POLYMORPHISM Polymorphism is the ability to use an operator or function in different ways. Polymorphism gives different meanings or functions to the operators or functions. Poly, referring to many, signifies the many uses of these operators and functions. A single function usage or an operator functioning in many ways can be called polymorphism. Polymorphism refers to codes, operations or objects that behave differently in different contexts.
  30. 30. INHERITANCE Inheritance is a mechanism of reusing and extending existing classes without modifying them, thus producing hierarchical relationships between them. Inheritance is almost like embedding an object into a class. Suppose that you declare an object x of class A in the class definition of B. As a result, class B will have access to all the public data members and member functions of class A. However, in class B, you have to access the data members and member functions of class A through object x.
  31. 31. ADVANTAGES OF C# OVER C Don't need to worry about header files &quot;.h&quot; Definition of classes and functions can be done in any order Pointers no longer needed (but optional) It is compiled to an intermediate language (CIL) indepently of the language it was developed or the target architecture and operating system Automatic garbage collection Classes can be defined within classes
  32. 32. CONCLUSION C# gives you access to a rich set of built-in types based on the common type system as well as the .NET Framework class library. As with all object-oriented languages, in C# you leverage built-in types and class libraries to build new types for your applications.C# shares many of the features of other object-oriented languages, such as C++.
  33. 33. REFERENCES www.msdnmicrosoft.com www.csharpstation.com www.wikipedia.org