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  3. 3. ORGANIZATIONA consciously coordinated social unit, composed of twoor more people, that functions on a relatively continuousbasis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.
  4. 4. MANAGERSManagersIndividuals who achieve goals through other people.Managerial Activities • Make decisions • Allocate resources • Direct activities of others to attain goals
  5. 5. MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS Planning Organizing Management Functions Controlling Leading
  6. 6. MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONSPlanningA process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, anddeveloping plans to coordinate activities.
  7. 7. MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS Organizing Determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made.
  8. 8. MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONSLeadingA function that includes motivating employees, directingothers, selecting the most effective communication channels, andresolving conflicts.
  9. 9. MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONSControllingMonitoring activities to ensure they are beingaccomplished as planned and correcting any significantdeviations.
  10. 10. MANAGEMENT SKILLSTechnical skillsThe ability to apply specializedknowledge or expertise.Human skillsThe ability to workwith, understand, and motivateother people, both individually andin groups.Conceptual SkillsThe mental ability to analyze anddiagnose complex situations.
  12. 12. CONTRIBUTING DISCIPLINES TO THE OB FIELD Psychology The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals.
  13. 13. CONTRIBUTING DISCIPLINES TO THE OB FIELD Sociology The study of people in relation to their fellow human beings.
  14. 14. CONTRIBUTING DISCIPLINES TO THE OB FIELD Social Psychology An area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another.
  15. 15. CONTRIBUTING DISCIPLINES TO THE OB FIELD Anthropology The study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.
  16. 16. CONTRIBUTING DISCIPLINES TO THE OB FIELD Political Science The study of the behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment.
  17. 17. OB AND SOCIAL PHENOMENON Organization as a Social Phenomenon Type of Analysis Theoretical Applied (Practical) Macro Organizational StrategicLevel of Analysis Sociology (OS) Management Meso Organization Change Theory (OT) Management Decrease in Micro Productivity Organizational Human Resource Behavior (OB) Management
  18. 18. MAIN TRENDS INORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Globalization Changing Empowering Workforce the Workforce Main Trends in OB Information Values Technology and Ethics
  19. 19. TREND 1: GLOBALIZATION Global companies:  Extend their activities  Actively participate  Compete Implications of globalization:  New organizational structures  Communication  More competition  More sensitivity to cultural differences
  20. 20. TREND 2: CHANGING WORKFORCE Primary and secondary diversity More women Different needs of Gen-X, Gen-Y Diversity has advantages, but firms need to adjust through:  cultural awareness  family-friendly  empowerment
  21. 21. TREND 2: CHANGING WORKFORCE  Employment Relationship  employees perform many tasks, not a specific job  Contingent work  no explicit or implicit contract for long-term employment  Telecommuting  working from home, usually with a computer connection to the office  Virtual teams  operate across space, time, and organizational boundaries; mainly communicate through electronic technologies
  22. 22. TREND 3: EMPOWERING THE WORKFORCE  Giving up Controls  Delegating power  Accepting Responsibility
  23. 23. TREND 4: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Affects how employees interact  Virtual teams  Telecommuting Affects how organizations are configured  Network structures -- alliance of several organizations
  24. 24. TREND 5: VALUES AND ETHICS Values – Attitudes, Perception Ethics – Credibility, No laws
  25. 25. DEPENDENT VARIABLE IN ORGANIZATIONALBEHAVIOR Job Satisfaction; Productivity; Absenteeism and Turnover; Organizational Identity; Organizational Involvement; Organizational Commitment; Organizational Citizenship Behavior.
  26. 26. PERCEPTION
  27. 27. PERCEPTION
  28. 28. DEFINITION  The process by which sensory information is actively organized and interpreted by the brain
  29. 29. WHAT DO YOU SEE?
  30. 30. NOW WHAT DO YOU SEE?
  31. 31. PERCEPTUAL PROCESS Sensory Attention Sensation Stimuli Selection of Some Stimuli Behavior Interpretation Organization
  32. 32. PERCEPTION PYRAMIDSource: darmano.typepad.com / www.google.com
  33. 33. FACTORS INFLUENCING PERCEPTION: Characteristics of the Perceiver Characteristics of the Perceived Characteristics of the Situation
  34. 34. PERSON PERCEPTION:  Making Judgments About Others
  35. 35. PATTERNS TO ORGANIZE SENSATIONS Figure-Ground O O O O O X X X X X O O O O O Similarity X X X X X O O O O O O O O O O Proximity O O O O O O
  36. 36. PATTERNS TO ORGANIZE SENSATIONS Closure Continuation Simplicity
  37. 37. PROCESS OF INTERPRETING Attribution Stereotyping Selective Social Perception Perceptual Defense Halo Effect Expectancy Projection
  38. 38. SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS IN ORGANIZATIONS Employment Interview Performance Expectations (Self Fulfilling Prophecy) Performance Evaluation Employee Effort Employee loyalty
  39. 39. SOME EXAMPLES……
  40. 40. SOME EXAMPLES……
  41. 41. ATTITUDE A state of mind with a tendency to feel and behave in a particular way towards objects, people or events.
  42. 42. COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDEAffective component: this involves a person’s feelings / emotions about the attitude object. For example: “I like public speaking”.Behavioural component: the way the attitude we have influences how we act or behave. For example: “I will grab every opportunity to speak in public”.Cognitive component: this involves a person’s belief / knowledge about an attitude object. For example: “I believe public speaking is important for my career.”
  43. 43. FUNCTIONS OF ATTITUDEDaniel Katz (1960) outlines four functional areas: Knowledge. Knowing a person’s attitude helps us predict their behaviour. For example, knowing that a person is religious we can predict they will go fast on certain days. Self / Ego-expressive. The attitudes we express (1) help communicate who we are and (2) may make us feel good because we have asserted our identity.
  44. 44.  Adaptive the adaptive functions helps us fit in with a social group and develop similar attitudes to those they like. The ego-defensive function refers to holding attitudes that protect our self-esteem or that justify actions that make us feel guilty.
  45. 45. ORGANISATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOUR Individual behaviour that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and in the aggregate promotes the efficient and effective functioning of the organisation
  46. 46. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT  Organisational commitment has been found to be a more direct measure of turnover intentions than satisfaction as it reflects the extent to which an employee shares the organisational values and goals, wanting to continue membership of the organisation and willing to work hard for itFigure: 5. 2: Attitude at work and its outcomes. Adapted from Harrison (2006)
  47. 47. VALUES  Values are basic convictions (notions) about what is right and wrong.
  48. 48. VALUES, BEHAVIOUR AND CULTURE Values predict attitudes, which predict behaviour Like attitudes, values can be culturally transmitted via social learning and shaped by social comparison at home/school/by friends E.g. – Western cultures value individualism more so than Eastern cultures
  49. 49. VALUES Importance of values – Values generally influence attitudes and behavior. Value system is a hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual’s values in terms of one’s intensity.
  50. 50. VALUES AND ATTITUDES Values are relatively stable and enduring. If we know an individual’s values, we are better able to predict a behavior in a particular situation.
  51. 51. VALUES  Values differ between generations.  Values differ between regions.  Values differ between cultures.
  52. 52. VALUES  Terminal values are the end- state we hope to achieve in life.  Instrumental values are means of achieving these terminal values.
  53. 53. TERMINAL AND INSTRUMENTAL VALUES INROKEACH VALUE SURVEY Terminal values Instrumental  A comfortable life values  An exciting life  Ambitious  A sense of  Broad-minded accomplishment  Capable  A world at peace  Cheerful  Equality  Clean  Family security  Courageous
  55. 55. RESPONSES TO JOB DISSATISFACTION. Active Exit Voice Destructive Constructive Neglect Loyalty Passive
  56. 56. ATTITUDE- LEARNING POINT  To achieve and find the life you want, you must think, act, talk, and conduct yourself as would the person you want to become.
  57. 57. FINALLY!!  Thegreatest discovery of my generation is that a human being CAN alter his life by changing his attitude. William James And so it is with you – you are in charge of your attitude.
  58. 58. PERSONALITY The combination of psychological traits we use to classify & describe a person in terms of characteristics such as quiet, passive, loud, aggressive, etc.
  59. 59. DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY1. Heredity The genetically determined biological, physiological or psychological characteristics an individual is born with.2. Environment The physical, geographical, cultural and social surroundings that an individual is exposed to.3. Situation The variable scenarios that an individual finds himself in that decides his behaviour in a particular setting.
  60. 60. PERSONALITY FORMATION 1. Levinson’s theory of Adult Life Stages Daniel Levinson proposed that personality development progresses with age. ADULT Settling Middle Old STAGE down Adulthood age22 28 33 40 45 50 55 60 65 Age 30 Midlife Age 50 Late Adult Transition Transition transition Transition
  61. 61. PERSONALITY FORMATION1. Hall’s career stage model An individual goes through four stages in his career 1. Exploration Seeks to understand himself and his role in the organization 2. Establishment Tries to settle down and establishes good relations with colleagues 3. Maintenance Productivity peaks and feels the need to contribute to juniors. 4. Decline Productivity declines and individual evaluates his life
  62. 62. PERSONALITY FORMATION1. Argyris’s Immaturity to maturity The degree of personality development of an individual can be measured in seven dimensions IMMATURITY MATURITY Passive Active Dependence Independence Behave in few ways Behave in many ways Erratic shallow interests Deeper & stronger interests Short time perspective Long time perspective Subordinate position Equal or super ordinate position Lack of self awareness Self awareness and control
  63. 63. PERSONALITY FORMATIONThe socialization process The process through which an individual’s personality is influenced by his interactions with people, groups and society.1. It brings about a change in the attitude, values, and behaviour2. It helps the new employee adjust to new jobs, work groups and organizational practices3. The crucial initial period determines how well an employee fits into the organization.
  64. 64. PERSONALITY TYPES1. Type A 1. Fast at everything they do 2. Involved in more than one thing at a time 3. Get upset easily 4. Output oriented2. Type B 1. Tend to work at a leisurely pace 2. More emotionally stable 3. Tend to be thoughtful and creative
  65. 65. MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR Most widely used personality-assessment instrument in the world Individuals are classified as extroverted or introverted (E or I), sensing or intuitive (S or N), thinking or feeling (T or F), and judging or perceiving (J or P)
  66. 66. EXTROVERTED VS. INTROVERTEDExtroverts are outgoing, sociable , and assertive Introverts are quiet and shy
  67. 67. SENSING VS. INTUITIVESensitive types are practical and prefer to focus on details Intuitive types rely on unconscious processes and look at the big picture
  68. 68. THINKING VS. FEELING Feeling types rely on their personal values and emotions Thinking types use reason and logic to handle problems
  69. 69. JUDGING VS. PERCEIVINGJudging types want control and prefer their world to be ordered and structured Perceiving types are flexible and spontaneous
  71. 71. OCCUPATIONAL TRENDS BY TYPE ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ Management Education Religion Scientific or Administration Health care Counseling technical fields Law enforcement Religious settings Teaching Computers Accounting Arts Law ISTP ISFP INFP INTP Skilled trades Health care Counseling Scientific or Technical fields Business Writing technical fields Agriculture Law enforcement Arts Law Enforcement Military ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP Marketing Health care Counseling Science Skilled trades Teaching Teaching Management Business Coaching Religion Technology Law enforcement Childcare worker Arts Arts Applied technology Skilled trades ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ Management Education Religion Management Administration Health care Arts Leadership Law enforcement Religion TeachingSource: From Introduction to Type and Careers, A.L. Hammer, 1993,Consulting Psychologists Press
  72. 72. MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR Most widely used personality-assessment instrument in the world Individuals are classified as extroverted or introverted (E or I), sensing or intuitive (S or N), thinking or feeling (T or F), and judging or perceiving (J or P)
  73. 73. How it all started… Jung Personality Type TheoryHow we prefer How we prefer How we prefer to perceive to make to be energized information? decisions? by the world? Sensing/ Intuition Thinking/ Feeling Introversion/ Extraversion
  74. 74. • Further studied Jung personality type theory• Based on that developed a tool – MBTI• Published by CPP Inc.
  75. 75. EXTROVERTED VS. INTROVERTEDExtroverts are outgoing, sociable , and assertive Introverts are quiet and think a lot
  76. 76. First Preference Extraversion Introversion• Action-Oriented • Thought-Oriented• Breadth of • Depth of knowledge knowledge • Substantial• Frequent Interaction Interaction
  77. 77. SENSING VS. INTUITIVESensing types are practical and prefer to focus on details Intuitive types rely on unconscious processes and look at the big picture
  78. 78. SENSING (S) People prefer taking in info that is real and tangible - which is actually happening Characteristics1) Observant2) Trust experience3) Build carefully and thoroughly towards conclusions4) Understanding ideas & theories –practical applications
  79. 79. INTUITION (N) People prefer taking in info by seeing the big picture,focusing on the relationship & connections b/w the factsCharacteristics1) Attuned to seeing new possibilities2) Imaginative and verbally creative3) Trust Inspiration4) Follow hunches – “ gut feelings”
  80. 80. THINKING VS. FEELING Feeling types rely on their personal values Thinking types use reason and logic to handle problems
  81. 81. Most people who Most people whoprefer Thinking: prefer Feeling: “decide logically”  “consider people”  Are analytical  Empathetic  Use cause-and-effect  Guided by personal reasoning values  Solve problems with  Assess impact of logic decisions on people  Strive for objective  Strive for harmony and standard of truth positive interactions  Described as reasonable  Described as  Search for flaws in an compassionate argument  Search for point of  Fair – want everyone agreement in an treated equally argument  Fair – want everyone treated as an individual
  82. 82. JUDGING VS. PERCEIVINGJudging types want control and prefer their world to be ordered and structured Perceiving types are flexible, spontaneous and open to change
  83. 83. LIST OF PERSONALITY TRAITS Judging types Perceiving types Like to have things decided  Like to stay open to respond to Appear to be task oriented whatever happens Like to make lists of things to  Appear to be loose and casual. do ORGANISATIONLike to keep plans to a minimum Like to get work done before  Like to approach work as play or playing mix work and play Plan work to avoid rushing just  Work in bursts of energy before a deadline  Stimulated by an approaching Sometimes focus so much on deadline the goal that they miss new  Sometimes stay open to new information information so long as miss making decisions when they are needed
  84. 84. CONSCIENTIOUSNESS A tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement I am always prepared. I am exacting in my work. I follow a schedule. I get chores done right away. I like order. I pay attention to details.
  85. 85. AGREEABLENESSAgreeableness is a tendency to be compassionate and cooperative I am interested in people. I feel others’ emotions. I have a soft heart. I make people feel at ease. I sympathize with others’ feelings. I take time out for others
  86. 86. NEUROTICISM Neuroticism is the tendency to experience negative emotions, such as anger, anxiety, or depression I am easily disturbed. I get irritated easily. I get stressed out easily. I get upset easily. I have frequent mood swings.
  87. 87. OPENNESS Openness is a general appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, imagination, curiosity, and variety of experience I have a rich vocabulary. I have a vivid imagination. I have excellent ideas. I spend time reflecting on things. I use difficult words
  88. 88. EXTROVERSION Extraversion is characterized by positive emotions, and the tendency to seek out stimulation and the company of others I am the life of the party. I dont mind being the center of attention. I feel comfortable around people. I start conversations. I talk to a lot of different people at parties
  90. 90. 2 Security Status What Makes Self- Esteem People Affiliation Join Groups? Goal Power Achievement
  92. 92. GROUPS Two or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives. Formal Group Informal Group A designated work A group that is neither group defined by the formally structured now organization’s structure. organizationally determined; appears in response to the need for social contact.
  93. 93. THE FIVE-STAGE MODEL OF GROUPDEVELOPMENT Forming Stage The first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty. Storming Stage The second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict. Norming Stage The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness.
  94. 94. THE FIVE-STAGE MODEL OFGROUP DEVELOPMENT Performing Stage The fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functional. Adjourning Stage The final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than performance.
  95. 95. FIVE-STAGE THEORY OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT Performing Adjourning Norming Storming Return to Independence Forming Dependence/ interdependenceIndependence
  97. 97. ROLES Role Identity Certain attitudes and behaviors consistent with a role. Role Perception An individual’s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation.
  98. 98. ROLES Role Expectations How others believe a person should act in a given situation. Role Conflict A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations.
  99. 99. NORMS Norms Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members. Classes of Norms: • Performance norms • Appearance norms • Social arrangement norms • Allocation of resources norms
  100. 100. NORMS Conformity Adjusting one’s behavior to align with the norms of the group. Reference Groups Important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with whose norms individuals are likely to conform.
  101. 101. GROUP STRUCTURE - COMPOSITION Group Demography The degree to which members of a group share a common demographic attribute, such as age, sex, race, educational level, or length of service in the organization, and the impact of this attribute on turnover. Cohesiveness Degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group.
  102. 102. GROUP DECISION MAKINGStrengths Weaknesses 1. More pooling of 1. More time consuming information 2. Increased pressure to 2. Increased diversity of conform views 3. Domination by one or a 3. Decision accepted and few members supported by majority of group
  103. 103. GROUP DECISION-MAKING TECHNIQUES Interacting Groups Typical groups, in which the members interact with each other face-to-face. Nominal Group Technique A group decision-making method in which individual members meet face-to-face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion. Brainstorming An idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives, while withholding any criticism of those alternatives.
  104. 104. FACTORS AFFECTING GROUP DECISIONS CONSENSUS ( we all decide ) Agreement in the judgment or opinion reached by all members of the group. Majority ( Most of us decide ) At least 51% or single largest percentage of members Veto ( I forbid ) Used to denote that a certain individual or sub group has the right to stop unilaterally a certain decision, usually in government matters
  105. 105. FACTORS AFFECTING GROUP DECISIONSGroupthink The tendency to follow the majority or the leader of the group out of fear of being isolated or removed from the groupPolarization The tendency to take extreme actions and bigger risks as a group as compared to individualsSocial loafing The tendency to exert less effort when working in a group as compared to working alone
  106. 106. Work GroupA group that interacts primarily to share information andto make decisions to help each group member performwithin his or her area of responsibility.Work TeamA group whose individual efforts result in aperformance that is greater than the sum of theindividual inputs.
  107. 107. MOTIVATION
  108. 108. DEFINITION A motive is an impulse that causes a person to act. Motivation the process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior Motivation is an internal process that makes a person move towards a goal. Motivation can only be inferred by noting a person’s behavior
  109. 109. SOURCES OF MOTIVATION Intrinsic Process Instrumental Self-Concept External Self-Concept Internal Goal Internalization
  110. 110. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES Early Theories  Scientific Management  Human relations Model Contemporary Theories  Content  Process
  111. 111. EARLY THEORIES
  112. 112. HUMANISM Develop the innate potential of every person. Help each individual to self-actualize.
  113. 113. WHAT IS HUMANISM? Dignity  Motivating Truth Seeking  Human Goodness Potential Self-Actualization  Growth Hopeful  Openness  Enlightenment
  114. 114. INTERNAL, PROCESS, EXTERNAL THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Content Explains why people have different needs at different times  Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs  Alderfer’s ERG Theory  Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory  Mc Gregor’s Theory X & Theory Y  Mc Clelland’s Manifest Needs
  115. 115. INTERNAL, PROCESS, EXTERNAL THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Process Describes the processes through which needs are translated into behavior  Adam’s Equity Theory  Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
  117. 117. NEEDS A state or condition within an individual that generates movement towards some outcome or reward.  Intrinsicmotivation: internal needs  Extrinsic motivation: external incentives
  118. 118. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS SA Esteem Love (Social) Safety & Security Physiological
  120. 120. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF THENEEDS HIERARCHY MODEL Satisfaction of deficiency needs fosters physical and psychological health. Satisfaction of growth needs helps development as a human being. If not blocked, higher level needs will emerge and motivate behavior. Order of needs may be influenced by culture. Organizational position or membership on an important team can facilitate growth need satisfaction.
  121. 121. WEAKNESS OF MASLOW’S THEORY Five levels of need are not always present. Ordering or importance of needs is not always the same. Cultural differences.
  122. 122. ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY SA Growth Esteem Love (Social) Relatedness Safety & Security Existence Physiological
  123. 123. MOTIVATION-ERG THEORY BY ALDERFER The ERG Theory  Needs are grouped into three overlapping categories:  Existence needs—physiological and security needs.  Relatedness needs—belongingness and esteem by others.  Growth needs—self-esteem and self-actualization.  ERG theory assumes that:  Multiple needs can be operative at one time (there is no absolute hierarchy of needs).  If a need is unsatisfied, a person will regress to a lower-level need and pursue that need.
  124. 124. HERZBERG’S TWO-FACTOR THEORYHygiene Factor - work condition related to dissatisfaction caused by discomfort or pain  maintenance factor  contributes to employee’s feeling not dissatisfied  contributes to absence of complaintsMotivation Factor - work condition related to the satisfaction of the need for psychological growth  job enrichment  leads to superior performance & effort
  125. 125. MOTIVATION-HYGIENE THEORY• Company policy & Motivation factors administration increase job• Supervision satisfaction• Interpersonal relations• Working conditions • Achievement• Salary • Achievement• Status recognition• Security • Work itself • Responsibility • Advancement Hygiene factors • Growth avoid • Salary job dissatisfaction
  126. 126. MOTIVATION-HYGIENE COMBINATIONS High M Low M high motivation low motivationHigh H few complaints few complaints high motivation low motivationLow H many complaints many complaints (Motivation = M, Hygiene = H)
  127. 127. MC GREGOR’S ASSUMPTIONSABOUT PEOPLE BASED ON THEORY X  Naturally indolent  Lack ambition, dislike responsibility, and prefer to be led  Inherently self-centered and indifferent to organizational needs  Naturally resistant to change  Gullible, not bright, ready dupes
  128. 128. MCGREGOR’S ASSUMPTIONSABOUT PEOPLE BASED ON THEORY Y Physical and mental work effort are natural Committing to objectives will allow the full range of control tools to be utilized Commitment is a function of proper rewards People learn to seek responsibility People have the ability to creatively solve organizational problems Employees need the freedom to utilize their untapped potential
  129. 129. Management Assumptions Theory X Workers Theory Y Workers• Dislike work • View work as natural• Must be threatened with punishment • Self-directed• Avoid responsibilities • Exercise self-control• Seek formal direction • Accept responsibility• Require security • Seek responsibility• Little ambition • Make innovative decisions• Workers are costs • Workers are assets
  130. 130. MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES X & Y SA Theory Y - a set of assumptions of how to Esteem manage individuals motivated by higher Love (Social) order needs Theory X - a set of Safety & Security assumptions of how to manage individuals Physiological motivated by lower order needs
  131. 131. MCCLELLAND’S NEED THEORY: NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENTNeed for Achievement –a manifest need that concerns individuals’ issues ofexcellence, competition, challenging goals,persistence, and overcoming difficulties-------3 S’s--------Set moderate goalsSeek feedbackStay focused
  132. 132. MCCLELLAND’S NEED THEORY: NEED FOR POWERNeed for Power –a manifest need that concerns anindividual’s need to make an impact onothers, influence others, change people orevents, and make a difference in lifePersonal or socialized
  133. 133. MCCLELLAND’S NEED THEORY: NEED FOR AFFILIATIONNeed for Affiliation –a manifest need that concerns anindividual’s need to establish and maintainwarm, close, intimate relationships withother people
  136. 136. PROCESS THEORIESDescribes the processes through which needs are translated into behavior  Adam’s Equity Theory  Vroom’s Expectancy Theory  Porter’s Performance Expectations Theory  Reinforcement Theory
  137. 137. ADAM’S EQUITY THEORYELEMENTS OF EQUITY THEORY Persono Equity or inequity existence Comparison othero person/people with whom we compare ratio Inputso Characteristics individuals bring alongwith them to the job Outcome/input ratioo inputs −what employee contributes (eg.skill)o outcomes −what employees receive (eg.pay)
  138. 138. EQUITY AND INEQUITYEquity is…..Individual rewardsIndividual outcomescompared withOthers’ rewardsOthers’ inputsInequity is…..Inputs / Outcome ratio isunequal toInputs / Outcome ratio of the comparison
  139. 139. CONSEQUENCES OF INEQUITY Change inputs Change outcomes Change perceptions Leave the field Act on the comparison other Change the comparison other
  140. 140. EQUITY SENSITIVITY Benevolentso tolerant of being under rewarded Equity sensitiveso want ratio to be equal to the comparison other Entitledso prefer receiving proportionately more than others
  143. 143. EXPECTANCY THEORY IN PRACTICE  Increasing E-to-P expectancy o training, selection, resources, clarify roles, provide coaching and feedback  Increasing P-to-O expectancy  measure performance accurately, explain how rewards are based on past performance  Increasing outcome valences  use valued rewards, individualize rewards, minimize countervailing outcomes
  144. 144. PORTER’S THEORYPERFORMANCE SATISFACTION MODEL Motivation, Performance and Satisfaction What happens after performance? Rewards that follow and how they are perceived will determine satisfaction
  145. 145. THEORY STATES…. Right person at right job Role explanation and their understandings towards the task assigned Actual performance levels expected Rewards dispensed are valued
  146. 146. REINFORCEMENT THEORY Consequences of an Individual’s behavior in one situation influence with individual’s behavior in a similar situation in future This is Operant Conditioning Rewarding Consequence is likely to be repeated i.e.: rewards = +ve reinforcement punishment = -ve reinforcement +ve to be repeated -ve not to be repeated Change the consequences of the behavior eg.: Rewarding desired behavior rather than punishing undesired behavior
  147. 147. CONDITIONS FOR MANAGER MOTIVATION Interpersonal competence -Style of supervision The opportunity to work toward meaningful goals -Being able to relate personal goals to organization goals. -Having helpful systems for setting and achieving goals. -Being ready to respond favorably to organization goals.
  148. 148. CONDITIONS FOR MANAGER MOTIVATION The existence of appropriate management systems -Investment in product R & D. -Product diversification. -Aggressive and innovative marketing. -Investment in capital improvements. -Mergers and acquisitions. -Expansion to international operations.
  149. 149. AFFILIATION MOTIVATION BEHAVIOUR Establish, maintain & restore emotional Relationship Need to be liked by others Affiliative Activities
  150. 150. POWER MOTIVATION & BEHAVIOUR1. Influencing & controlling- Wanting to win a point- Show dominance- Tries to convince- Gains position of control- Avoids weakness & humiliation- Inspires & tries to teach/advise others2. Influencing by- Arguing- Demanding- Forcing- Commanding- Punishing- Physical power to influence no hostility
  151. 151. POPULAR MOTIVATIONAL STRATEGIES Empowerment and Participation  Empowerment  Enabling workers to set their own work goals, make decisions, and solve problems within their sphere of influence.  Participation  Giving employees a voice in making decisions about their work.  Areas of participation for employees:  Making decisions about their jobs.  Decisions about administrative matters (e.g., work schedules).  Participating in decision making about broader issues of product quality.
  152. 152. POPULAR MOTIVATIONAL STRATEGIES (CONT’D) Techniques and Issues in Empowerment  Using work teams  Collections of employees empowered to plan, organize, direct, and control their work.  Decentralization  Changing the overall method of organizing the firm  Conditions necessary for empowerment:  Power spread to lower organizational levels  Commitment to empowering workers  Systematic and patient efforts to empower workers.  Increased commitment to training.
  153. 153. USING REWARD SYSTEMS TO MOTIVATEPERFORMANCE Reward System Merit Reward Systems Incentive Reward Systems Team and Group Incentive Reward Systems Executive Compensation New Approaches to Performance-Based Rewards  Leveraging the value of incentives  Getting increasingly innovative in incentive programs
  154. 154. 3 CAUSES OFMOTIVATIONAL PROBLEMS Belief that effort will not result in performance Belief that performance will not result in rewards The value a person places on, or the preference a person has for, certain rewards
  155. 155. APPLICATIONS OF CONCEPTS OF MOTIVATION Money Job Design Job Expansion Quality of Work Life
  156. 156. THE MEANING OF MONEY  Money and employee needs  affects several needs, not just existence needs  Money and attitudes  money ethic not evil, represents success, should be budgeted carefully © Corel Corp  Money and self- identity  influences our self-
  157. 157. JOB DESIGN Specifying the tasks that make up a job for an individual or group Assigning tasks to a job, including the interdependency of those tasks with other jobs Involves determining  What is to be done (i.e., responses)  How it is to be done (i.e., tools etc.)  Why it is to be done (i.e., purpose) Results in job description  Shows nature of job in task-related behaviors
  158. 158. COMPONENTS OF JOB DESIGN Job specialization Job expansion Psychological components Self-directed teams Motivation and incentive systems Ergonomics and work methods
  159. 159. JOB EXPANSION Process of adding more variety to jobs Intended to reduce boredom associated with labor specialization Methods  Job enlargement  Job enrichment  Job rotation  Employee empowerment
  160. 160. JOB ENLARGEMENT /ENRICHMENT Enriched Job Planning Enlarged Job Task #2 Present Task #3 Job Control
  161. 161. JOB ROTATION Pediatrics Maternity Geriatrics
  162. 162. JOB ENRICHMENT STRATEGIES Empowering employees  giving employees more autonomy  feeling of control and self-efficacy Forming natural work units  completing an entire task  assigning employees to specific clients Establishing client relationships © Marlborough Express (NZ)  employees put in direct contact with clients
  163. 163. EMPLOYEE EMPOWERMENT Employee Empowerment Decision-Making Control Planning
  164. 164. LIMITATIONS TOJOB ENLARGEMENT/JOB ENRICHMENT Higher capital cost Many individuals prefer simple jobs Higher wages are required since the worker must utilize a higher level of skill A smaller labor pool exists of persons able and willing to perform enriched or enlarged jobs Increased accident rates may occur Current technology in some industries does not lend itself to job enlargement and enrichment
  165. 165. QUALITY OF WORK LIFEQuality of worklife includesfactors in theworkplace thatworkers areentitled to.