INTRODUCTION :- a. Definition :-Leadership defined as the ability to influence a person or a group towards the achievement of goals b. Qualities:- i) Competent ii) Humility iii) Openness iv) Creativity v) Inspiring
Personality theories :- 1. Great man theory of leadership 2. Trait theory of leadership
1. Great man theory of leadership :- a. This theory introduced by Thomas Carlyle in 1840 b. Assumption of this theory is “Leader are born and not made” c. Example:- Shivaji Maharaj
2. Trait theory of leadership :- a. This theory introduced by Gordon Allport in 1936 b. Assumption of this theory is "Leader need not always be born, but can be made also” c. Some of the qualities :- i. Intelligence ii. Ambition and energy iii. Personality iv. knowledge
Behavioral theory :- a. Assumption1 of this theory is “leader are not completely in born, but also can be acquired from learning and experience” b. Assumption2 of this theory is “Specific behavior differentiates leaders from non leader” c. This theory conduct two research 1. Ohio Studies at Ohio state University, USA 2. Michigan Studies at University of Michigan during 1945-47
OHIO STUDIES:LEADERSHIP HIGH HIGH HIGH CONSIDERATION CONSIDERATIONCONSIDERATION AND LOW AND HIGH(RELATIONSHIP STRUCTURE STRUCTURE BEHAVIOUR) LOW LOW CONSIDERATION CONSIDERATION AND LOW AND HIGH STRUCTURE STRUCTURE INITIATING STRUCTURE (TASK BEHAVIOUR) LOW HIGH
LIKERT’S MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS :- His systems are :- System 1 Exploitative – Authoritative System 2 Benevolent – Authoritative System 3 Consultative – Authoritative System 4 Participative - Democratic
THE MANAGERIAL GRID THEORY :- Robert Blake Jane Mouton
THE MANAGERIAL GRID THEORY :- HIGH 9 1.9 9.9 (country club) (TEAM) 8 7 6 5.5 5 (MIDDLE OF THE ROAD)CONCERNFOR THE 4PEOPLE 3 2 1.1 9.1 1 (IMPROVERISHED) (TASK) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 CONCERN FOR LOW PRODUCTION HIGH
SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP :- Situational Factors :- a. Force in the leader b. Force in group c. Other situational force d. Leadership continuum
PATH GOAL THEORY :- a. The path goal theory originally developed by Martin Evans in the year 1970. b. The path goal theory founded on the belief that it is the Leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide necessary direction or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objective the group or organization.
Leadership Behaviors :-a. Directive leadership :- leader gives instructions, expectations, time lines, rewards norms, clarify the rules and regulation as applicable and monitor their performanceb. Supportive Leadership :- leader is friendly and approachable, attends to the well being of subordinates, and treats everyone as equalsc. Participative Leadership :- leader invites subordinates to give ideas, share opinions and integrates their suggestions into the decision making processd. Achievement-Oriented Leadership :- leader challenges subordinates to perform at the highest level possible. Leader has high standards of excellence and seeks continuous improvement.
How Does Path-Goal Theory Work?a. The leader’s job is to help subordinates reach their goals by directing, guiding, and coaching them along the wayb. Leaders must evaluate task and subordinate characteristics and adapt leadership style to thesec. The theory suggests which style is most appropriate for specific characteristics
Transformational Leadership :- a. Transformational theory developed by James MacGregor Burns(1978) b. According to Burns, transforming leadership is a process in which "leaders and followers help each other to advance to a higher level of morale and motivation".
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIPFACTORS THE FOUR I’S :-a. Idealized Influence - describes leaders who act as strong role models for followers. Followers identify with these leaders and want very much to emulate them.b. Inspirational Motivation - leaders who communicate high expectations to followers and inspire them through motivation to become committed to and a part of the shared vision.c. Intellectual Stimulation - leadership that stimulates followers to be creative and innovative and to challenge their own beliefs and values as well as those of the leader.d. Individual consideration - leaders who provide a supportive climate in which they listen carefully to the individual needs of the followers.
Transformational Theory :- TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADER HAVE THE FOLLOWING BEHAVIOR :- • Model of integrity and fairness • Known for setting clear goals • Have high expectation • Encourage the followers • Provide support and recognize the followers • Stir the emotions of the people • Get people to look beyond their self-interest