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  1. 1. Texas and Mexico, South Africa, The Opium Wars, and Europe: The Year of RevolutionAbby’sHistory Presentation 6
  2. 2. Texas and Mexico 1835-1848• In 1835, Texas declared its independence from Mexico. After battles, Texas was announced an independent republic. A few years after gaining independence, Texas voted to join the USA. It became the 28th state.• President James Polk sent soldiers to the Rio Grande, invading Mexican land. The Mexicans resisted, and the Mexican- American War began. When U.S. troops captured Mexico City, the capital, in 1847, Mexico surrendered.• This gave the United States huge territories including our modern Nevada, Arizona, California, and Utah.
  3. 3. South Africa 1814-1910 In 1836, the Cape Colony was ruled by the British. Dutch settlers did not like British rule. They left the Cape colony and traveled northward to KwaZulu-Natal and took over. The British defeated them in 1843. A three way struggle broke out, with the British against the Zulus, and both groups against the Dutch. The Zulus Cecil Rhodes were ruled by Cetswayo. The Zulus fought bravely, but were finally defeated. Cecil Rhodes was the prime minister of the Cape Colony at that time. He wanted to create a British empire in Africa. His raid of Jameson, designed to overthrow the Dutch government, failed. The Treaty of Vereeniging was signed in 1902 and the Dutch were part of the British empire in exchange for self government. Cetswayo
  4. 4. The Opium Wars 1830-1864• The Chinese had barely any contact with the rest of the world for centuries. Europeans were desperate for fine Chinese goods, so some smuggled the drug opium in the country to trade. The Chinese government tried to stop this by burning up to 20000 chests of opium.• The British were furious and they sent warships that threatened the Chinese. The Chinese refused to trade with Britain, did not pay compensation, and fired on the British forces. This began the first Opium War.• The British had superior forces. When the war was over, they forced the Chinese to sign the Treaty of Nanjing, which opened up Chinese ports to Britain. China also had to pay compensation and give Hong Kong to the British.
  5. 5. Europe: Year of Revolution 1848 • For many of the rebellions, they were caused by the same reasons as the French Revolution. One of the main factors was that people were beginning to want a say in their own government. • Another powerful reason was nationalism, the desire of people who spoke the same language wanting to form independent nations. This was especially strong in Italy and Germany. • By February, a final petition was formed, and when complete, said to have 3,000,000 signatures on it. It was presented on April 10th. It was rejected. Eventually, though, many governments began to see that democratic reforms would be soon necessary.