Abby’s History Presentation 3Exploration in Oceania, Japan and Southeast Asia, The Birth of the USA, and the French Revolution
Exploration in Oceania 1642-1820❖ During the 1600s, Dutch seamen found the northern and western coast of Australia, naming it “New Holland.”❖ The English navigator, William Dampier, explored though 1677 and 1699 and proved Australia was an island.❖ The ﬁrst scientiﬁc exploration of these Southern lands was by Captain James Cook. He made three journeys. When he landed at Botany Bay on his second journey, he claimed it for Britain.❖ Unfortunately, the “new lands” Cook had claimed were inhabited. The natives were wary of Cook and his men, as they were the ﬁrst Europeans they had ever seen. The men and the natives lived in awkward closeness, but many of the natives were killed when settlers brought in disease.
Captain James Cook❖ Cook joined the British navy as a teenager. He was a British cartographer, explorer, and navigator.❖ On Cook’s third journey, which began in 1776, he visited New Zealand, Tahiti, Tonga, and ﬁnally Hawaii.❖ He was killed in a quarrel with the Hawaiian islanders.❖ Cook was the ﬁrst European contact with the Hawaiian islands and the Eastern coastline of Australia.
Japan & Southeast Asia 1603-1826❖ Since 1603, Tokugawa shoguns ran Japan very strictly and isolated, but they also brought peace and security. The country prospered, the population rising, towns ﬂourishing, trade types advanced, and many Japanese received a good education.❖ Japan also had problems. Many had left the land, crowding cities and the samurai class owed debt. Large taxes led to riots, many minor crimes became punishable by death, and an anti-shogun attitude rised.❖ Over in Southeast Asia, there were no ban on traders. During the 1700s, many trade links became political battles. By 1820, Europeans had a very strong hold on Southeast Asia.
The Birth of the USA❖ In the colonies, after the Seven Years War, the British were running low on money, so they raised taxes. The colonies argued that it was unfair since they had no say in running the British government. “Taxation without representation is tyranny,” they would say.❖ The colonies boycotted British goods, and on July 4, 1776, representatives from all 13 colonies adopted the Declaration of Independence.❖ The American Revolution began in 1775, and at ﬁrst the British were succesful. Six years later, the British surrendered in Yorktown, Virginia, and eventually recognized America’s independence.
The Boston Tea Party❖ The Boston Tea Party took place in 1773, and was a protest against British taxation. A group called the Sons of Liberty led by Samuel Adams were the bandleaders.❖ They dressed up as Mohawk Native Americans, boarded two ships in the Boston Harbor, and threw tea chests into the sea.❖ For “revenge” the British closed down Boston Harbor until the tea was paid oﬀ.
The French Revolution 1789-1799❖ This revolution had been building up for years, due to baﬀ government and huge diﬀerences between the rich and poor. It was encouraged by the Enlightenment and inﬂuenced by the American Revolution.❖ The revolution began at an assembly when professional classes rebelled against nobles and clergy. In a constitution, they abolished the old order, nationalized Church lands, and reorganized local government.❖ Chaos broke out. A new constitution was written in 1795, called the Directory, and a young general, Napoleon Bonaparte took over.