Negative connotation of counselling.
In dealing with employees
Due to equation with clinical counselling- PROBLEM CASES!!!
Performance Counselling- Focuses on entire performance
(Tasks+ Behavior) during a particular period- Not only for
Help subordinates to analyse performances and job
behaviors to increase job effectiveness.
Also called “ Coaching”
Realise his potential as a manager
Understand his own strengths and weakness
Acquire insight and to analyze his own behavior
Better understanding of environment
Increases personal and interpersonal effectiveness
Encourages to set goals
Encourages to generate alternatives for problems
Develop action plans for improvement
Can review his progress
This is commonly referred to as the “positive asset
search.” Rather than focusing on just the problems, an
effective counselor will seek to find positive assets
upon which the subordinate can focus.
This type of counseling is intended to reduce
inappropriate behavior or actions. The person being
counseled is given real-time feedback in a non-threatening
manner in order to make adjustments
concerning the inappropriate behavior or actions.
Subordinate-centered communication that
produces a plan outlining actions that
subordinates must take to achieve individual and
WHO IDENTIFIES THE NEED
Counselor Centered Counseling
Line Managers/Human Resources
Supervisor determined a problem
Supervisor has the solution
Supervisor takes responsibility for success of
Counselee Centered Counseling
Employee Determined the problem
Employee may have the solution
Needs a platform for discussion
What is “Supervision”
There are several interpretations of the term
"supervision", but typically supervision is the activity
carried out by supervisors to oversee the productivity and
progress of employees who report directly to the
For example, first-level supervisors supervise entry-level
employees. Depending on the size of the organization,
middle-managers supervise first-level supervisors, chief
executives supervise middle-managers, etc.
Supervision is a management activity and supervisors
have a management role in the organization.
Supportive Supervision is an attitude first and a
process second. It is the creation of an environment
that allows staff to develop professionally and
enhances performance of staff regardless of current
level of performance or professional expertise
What Do Supervisors Do?
Supervision of a group of employees often includes
1. Conducting basic management skills (decision making,
problem solving, planning, delegation and meeting
2. Organizing their department and teams
3. Noticing the need for and designing new job roles in
4. Hiring new employees
5. Training new employees
6. Employee performance management (setting goals,
observing and giving feedback, addressing performance
issues, firing employees, etc.)
7. Conforming to personnel policies and other internal
Rights of Supervisors
The rights of supervisors include the right to assign work
to employees under their supervision consistent with job
classifications, the right to hold subordinates accountable
for the work assigned, and the right to evaluate how
effectively such subordinates perform.
They also have the authority to approve and disapprove
requests for time off in accordance with both
organizational and employee needs.
Responsibilities of Supervisors
The responsibilities of supervisors include becoming
familiar with the attendance rules which affect the
employees they supervise and the collective bargaining
agreement(s) which pertain to them.
It also includes the application of these rules in a fair and
consistent manner. All employees should be instructed on
the rules, should be given their appropriate share of the
assigned work, and should be evaluated on the basis of
how well they perform.
Supervisors are responsible for assuring that subordinates
know how to do their work safely, and do so, and that they
have the materials, tools, and other means necessary to
perform their work at a satisfactory level.
Supervisors should constantly remind themselves that the
inconsistent application of work rules, especially attendance
rules, and the uneven distribution of work are major factors in
the creation of low morale among employees. When these
negative morale factors exist, they have an impact within a
particular work unit, and within the total organization, as
employees compare their relative treatment to other
departmental employees and/or to employees in other
Resources for Supervisors
The resources for supervisors include copies of collective
bargaining agreements, policies, and procedures, as
appropriate; the leadership of their own supervisors; and
the staff of the faculty/staff relations, personnel, and
Additional "tools" are available which can greatly assist
supervisors in meeting their obligations if these tools are
properly used. They include performance evaluation,
counseling, and discipline.
CORE SKILLS IN SUPERVISION
1. Problem Solving and
2. Decision Making
1. Define the problem
This is often where people struggle. They react to what
they think the problem is. Instead, seek to understand
more about why you think there's a problem
Coaching & Mentoring
The main reasons why organizations need coaching
and mentoring activities are as follows:
To maximize knowledge transfer
To increase the skill levels
For succession planning
To increase skill levels
The coaches and mentors can very effectively transfer
Customization of skills in relation to the core activities
of the business is retained
Cross training of staff can be achieved
For succession planning
The ability for the organization to identify ‘fast track’
candidates and prepare them for new jobs is enhanced
by coaching & mentoring
Coaching & Mentoring can ensure continuity of
performance when key staff leave the organization
because core skills have been transferred
Benefits of coaching
The Coach / Mentor
Benefits to the Coach / Mentor can be described as:
Further development of own skill level
Involvement in strategic activity
Probably the most common form of informal training is
1. The supervisor, or some other expert at the subject
matter or skill, tells the employee how to do something.
2. The employee tries it.
3. The expert watches and gives feedback.
4. The employee tries it until he or she gets it right.
The Coaching Process
Step 1. Prepare the learner. Offer an explanation of what to do. Barriers to
effective coaching include the learner's fear of change or of appearing
incompetent. The learner might be defensive. The supervisor can help the
learner to relax by empathizing with him or her. Find out what the learner
already knows. Proceed from the familiar to the unfamiliar.
Step 2. Demonstrate the operation. Demonstrate how to do it. Explain to
the learner exactly what is being done during a demonstration, moving from
the simple to the complex. Allow the learner the opportunity to ask questions.
Explain the relationship between what the learner is doing and the overall
Step 3. Create a positive atmosphere. Give positive reinforcement to the
learner. Be patient with the learner.
Step 4. Have the learner perform the operation. Let the learner participate.
Active participation is essential for instilling long-term learning. Step 5. Follow
up. Evaluate learning. Check up on the learner's progress to demonstrate your
availability to answer questions and to discover any new problems.
Counseling is a process through which one person
helps another by purposeful conversation an
It helps people to see things from a different viewpoint
and encourage them to draft their action plan.
The Counseling Process
Step 1. Describe the changed behavior.
Step 2. Get employee comments on the changed behavior
and the reason for it..
Step 3. Agree on a solution
Step 4. Summarize and get a commitment to change.
Step 5. Follow up.
EVALUATIVE – Make judgments based on what
you have heard and suggest answers
INTERPRETAATIVE – Interpret what you have
heard without checking the accuracy of what you
SUPPORTIVE – Offer general sympathy
PROBING – Find out more information
REFLECTIVE – Try to feed back your listener’s
perception of what has been said in order to check
Problem solving has been defined as a higher-order
cognitive process that requires the modulation and
control of more routine or fundamental skills
Perceive your Problems.
Look at Problems Practically.
Problems have a limited Life Span.
Problems have both Negative and Positive Reaction.
These techniques are usually called problem solving
strategies. Some of these are:
Abstraction: solving the problem in a model of the
system before applying it to the real system
Analogy: using a solution that solved an analogous
Brainstorming: (especially by using groups of people)
suggesting a large number of solutions or ideas and
combining and developing them until an optimum
solution is found
Analyzing the Problem
Defining the Problem
Identify the Causes
Analyze the Problem
Defining the Problem
Why it is Problem?
What type of problem is it ?
How urgent is the problem?
What are the consequences ?
Lack of Experience
Maximum Gain / Minimum Loss
Predictions (Trial and Error)
What is the probability of success?
Choose alternative which best meets the criteria.