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Fresh Water Notes (New Text)


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Fresh Water Notes (New Text)

  1. 1. The Earth’s Freshwater Hydrosphere Fresh water I. water on earth a. remains fairly constant b. 97% is salt, 3% is fresh (not salty) c. of the 3% fresh, 76% - ice; 23% is underground d. less than 1% of the 3% - available surface water II. water cycle a. powered by the sun b. evaporation – from liquid to gas – increased heat energy c. condensation – from gas to liquid – cooling/decreased heat energy d. precipitation – falls back to Earth - gravity e. transpiration – water vapor given off by plants – a form of evaporation III. water on the surface (surface water) a. river systems (river and all of its tributaries) b. icebergs and glaciers - most of the earth’s fresh water IV. underground water (groundwater) a. aquifer – underground rock layer that stores water b. water table – upper boundary of saturated zone c. permeable – pores (spaces) allow water to pass through d. impermeable – does not allow water to pass - bedrock e. saturated – filled with water V. Wetlands -land covered part of the year by shallow water – protected; they are important habitats during the life cycle of many species. Two of the largest wetlands in the USA are the Everglades in Florida and the Okefenokee Swamp in GA. Chapter 12 Freshwater Resources I. water supply - drinking quality must be protected a. water shortage - too little water or too great a demand in an area (or both) b. our water source - Lake Lanier c. water conservation - protecting water supply (use less, use more efficiently) II. freshwater pollution a. water pollution - any addition of a substance that has a negative impact on the water supply b. sources of water pollution i. point source pollution – coming from a specific and identifiable place or pipe ii. nonpoint source pollution – problem is from a wide area and cannot be traced back to one place