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Earthquake Measurement Questions Dteston


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Earthquake Measurement Questions Dteston

  1. 1. • What does the inside of the Earth look like?
  2. 2. How do we determine the composition of the Earth? • Scientists cannot see the interior so they must use other ways to figure it out! • Earthquakes have many different types of waves • These waves travel at different speeds through solids and liquids • Some waves don’t travel at all through liquids. • Measuring these waves tells us what is in the Earth’s core and where the materials change.
  3. 3. Earth Layers • The Earth is divided into four main layers. *Inner Core *Outer Core *Mantle *Crust
  4. 4. The Earth’s Crust • The crust is the thinnest layer on Earth • There are two types of crust • Oceanic crust – made mostly of the igneous rock basalt. Found under the ocean. Relatively thin. • Continental crust – made mostly of granite. Found under the continents. Relatively thick.
  5. 5. Special parts of the Crust • Lithosphere • Crust is the upper part of the lithosphere • Broken up into large plates • Asthenosphere • Upper part of mantle, below lithosphere • 130 – 160 km thick • Cooler part of the mantle that the lithospheric plates slide on top of.
  6. 6. The Earth’s Mantle • Located directly above the outer core • Starts below the crust • Is the largest layer • 80% of the Earth’s volume & 68% of Earth’s mass
  7. 7. The Earth’s Mantle • Composed of more iron than the crust. • Density, pressure, and temperature all increase the deeper you go in the mantle • Temperature ranges from 870 C – 2200 C
  8. 8. Special layers of the mantle • Lithosphere – crust plus the upper, solid part of the mantle. Forms plates. • Asthenosphere – just under the lithosphere. Slow moving “Silly putty” layer on which the lithospheric plates slid. (Solid rock that flows very slowly.)
  9. 9. Currents in the Mantle
  10. 10. The Earth’s Core The Earth’s Core • Composed of the inner and outer core • Both are made of iron and nickel
  11. 11. • How do scientists know that there is a solid inner core?
  12. 12. The Earth’s Outer Core The Outer Core - Liquid • Surrounds the inner core • Temperature ranges from 2200 C – 5000 C near inner core • Molten (liquid) iron and nickel
  13. 13. The Earth’s Inner Core The Inner Core - Solid • Temperature reaches 5000 C • Solid iron and nickel • Usually both would be liquid but are solid in the core because of the incredible pressure • The solid core is the source of Earth’s magnetic field
  14. 14. What do you know about these layers?