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On farm killing january 2007


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On-Farm Killing Of Poultry Using Gas – UK Experiences from January 2007. David Pritchard Gordon Hickman, describing mass depopulation methods, comaring these methods with the Anoxia method of using Nitrogen base gas foam. Interesting read, including nice graphics!

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On farm killing january 2007

  1. 1. On-Farm K illing Of Poult ryUsing Gas – UK Ex perienc esDavid Prit c hardGordon Hic k m an23 J anuary 2007
  2. 2. OverviewRecent developments & UK experience of:q R&D Programme of physiology of gasmixturesq Containerised Gassing Units (CGUs)q Whole House Gassing (WHG)q Foam
  3. 3. Bac k groundq Permissible techniques forkilling birds for disease control(WASK, schedule 9):yDislocation of the neck (NB OIEcode)yDecapitationyLethal injectionyFree bullet XXXyElectrocutionyExposure to lethal gasesyPercussion killer
  4. 4. Bac k ground - Wheelie Binsq Use Carbon dioxideq Welfare issues: gas, birdmonitoring, physical trauma& crushing; smotheringq Technical issues:ygas supplyytemperatureq Consequently there was a perceived need for an improvedsystem that addressed some of the welfare and technical issuespresented by the wheelie bin system
  5. 5. R& D – Modified Binsq Study initiated at BristolUniversity - “EmergencyKilling of Poultry on Farmusing Gas Mixture”q Led by Dr Mohan Rajq Major objectivesyInvestigate alternatives toCO2yModify design of binyExamine rates of filling withgas in a variety ofcircumstances
  6. 6. R& D - Alt ernat ive gasesqAvailable gases:y inert gases (argon,nitrogen);y inert gases + CO2;y carbon monoxide;y cyanideqAversiveness of gasmixturesqSelected: Ar: CO2 inan 80:20 mixyWelfare;ycost;y availability;ypracticality;yhealth & safety
  7. 7. Conc ept Developm ent (CGU)q Subsequent “brainstorming”resulted in birth of theContainerised Gassing Unit orCGUq Principle of ramping up usualprocedures during crisisy Use available catching teamsy Use available Poultry transportmodule and cratesq Principle of simple robustsystemsy Gas tight containery Supply of argon/CO2y Monitoring equipment - Oxygenmeter
  8. 8. Cont ainerised Gassing Unitq The containerised gassing units consist of a gas- tight steel (3mm thick) container (1.5m W x3.0m L x 1.5 H = 6.75m3)q A number of standard poultry transport modulesq A supply of a 80% argon and 20% carbondioxide gas mix.
  9. 9. q2 CGUs and 6modules stored on anarticulated trailer forrapid responseq Gas sourcedseparatelyqBoth deployed in lessthan 24 hoursq50 CGUs in totalPort able Syst em for RapidDeploym ent
  10. 10. q The container is pre-fittedwith gas pipe work anddiffusers to disperse gasand reduce noise and aresecured to the metalcontainer.q Each container comeswith two gas regulatorsand a manifoldq For transport these aresecurely attached toinside back panel of CGU
  11. 11. q A rack full ofindividual gascylindersqManifold system andgas regulators
  12. 12. q One standard chickentransport modulecontaining poultry areplaced inside the CGUusing a forkliftq Capacity depends onsize of birdq 12 drawers each with 25birds = 300 chickens perunit
  13. 13. q The door is shut and secured.q The gas supply is turned on andmaintained at 3 bar deliverypressure for up to three minutesor until a residual oxygen of 5%by volume is registered in theoxygen analyser.q The birds are held in the gasmixture for up to five minutesfrom the moment of turning thegas on or until wing flapping hasstopped (as determined fromlistening to the sound)Oxygenanalyser
  14. 14. q A forklift is used to removethe module full of birds andit is placed in atmosphericair.q Each draw is pulled outand examined to checkthat there are no survivors.
  15. 15. qAfter checking forsurvivors,carcases aresprayed withdisinfectant
  16. 16. q The dead birds areemptied into bags ordirect into leak-prooflorriesq Self-emptying modulescan be used to minimisemanual handling
  17. 17. Each module will hold about 300 chickens (2 kg)q CGU can be filled in 2 minutes and an additional 30seconds exposure to gas mixture will effectively kill thebirdsq Operating with two metal containers on a farm wouldtherefore facilitate killing 600 chickens in 5 minutesq Allowing an interval of 5 minutes between each cycle,for the purpose of unloading and reloading metalcontainers with modules, would in theory allow thekilling 6,000 birds per hour.Work ing Assum pt ions
  18. 18. q For planning purposes a maximumthroughput of 4,000 birds per hour is used.q Incidentally, a catching team of 5 people canalso work at the rate of crating 6,000 birdsper hourq Therefore, one catching team could supplybirds to operate two containers on eachfarm.Work ing Assum pt ions
  19. 19. Field ex perienc e w it h CGUsqOver 120 staff trained using DVD, SOP andpractical courseqUsed on three farms in Norfolk LPAI outbreakwith about 48,700 birds killed in less than 48hoursqUsed for East Lothian NDV outbreak for 12745birds ( partridge, quail, pheasant chicken)qPlanned throughput achieved with safeoperation and humane killqPositive media coverage
  20. 20. Cont ainerised Gassing Unit sStrengthsq Used in last 2 UK poultry disease outbreaksq Modest costq Proven techniqueq Humane – non-aversive gas mixq FlexibleWeaknessq Individual birds need to be handledq H&S associated with use of gasq Moderate throughputUsesq Medium sized units (10 - 20,000 birds)q Free range and Caged units
  21. 21. Whole House Gassing TrialqBirds being culled for disease reasonsqNE England October 2006qUsing liquid Carbon dioxide directinjection into the houseq to kill 13,000 chicken poults
  22. 22. Rec ordingprobesfor gas &Tem perat urePreparat ionof houseHousem easuredLengt h 30 mWidt h 12 mHeight t oridge 4mPlac ingBiosec urit y andSafet y Barriers
  23. 23. Preparat ionTrailer with variableheight assembly for lancefitted with high pressurehose( pressure over 5 bar)Preparation of site andpresite briefingClosed inlet flaps in sidewalls immediately priorto gas delivery
  24. 24. Delivery lanc eLance placed atapproximately1.5 meters above floorEnd of lance cut at 30 0to direct gas to roof ofhouseTemperature probe insitu
  25. 25. Video Monit oring using IRc am eras
  26. 26. Gas delivery equipm ent and st aff
  27. 27. Gas m onit oringPersonal Carbon dioxide meter Continuous gas monitor
  28. 28. Perimeter securityGas Delivery t o House4 Tons of Liquid CO2delivered in 4 minutesHoused closed for 1hour
  29. 29. Safet y Chec k sPost gassingOperatives workin pairs for safetyEngineers usingBreathing apparatusused to check gas levelsto certify safe entry forvet to check birds arekilled
  30. 30. Indic at ors of hum ane k illobserved post c ullqDistribution of birds e.g. clumping orstacking of birds indicating signs of panicor suffocationqPosition of birds post cull – lateralrecumbency or supine or ventralqExternal signs on birds of injury or damqSigns of convulsions e.g. disturbed litter
  31. 31. Dist ribut ion of birds post k ill
  32. 32. Ventral recumbencyLateral recumbencyNo signs ofconvulsions
  33. 33. Com paring dist ribut ion beforeand aft er gas deliveryBefore - showingfree dispersionAfter - showing asmall amount ofclumping
  34. 34. Post k ill dist ribut ionqBarrier placed half waydown house to limitclumpingqSome clumping wasseen around barrierIndicating that birdsdid move away fromsource of gas
  35. 35. Liquid Carbon diox ide k illingof poult s - Conc lusionsqGood preparation of house – removal offurniture and feeding systems and barrier put inplaceqEffective delivery systems 4 minutes to 50%CO2 at 1.5 meters highqNo evidence of poor welfare such as injury,suffocation, or convulsionsqSome evidence of movement from the incominggas streamqHumane acceptable system of killing smallchickens
  36. 36. Gassing – w holehouseStrengthsq Widely used in Holland and Canadaq Live birds do not need to be handledq Large numbers can be killed quicklyq HumaneWeaknessq Need technical supportq H&S associated with use of gasq Large quantity of gas requiredq Limited range of houses suitable ?q Usesq Large broiler unitsq Some caged units?
  37. 37. Low Densit y Foam For K illingPoult ry On-FarmUsing nit rogen or sim ilaranox ic gas m ix t ure
  38. 38. Low densit y foam For K illingPoult ry On-Farmq Still under developmentqDetails subject to commercial confidentialityq Low density foam as a carrier for anoxic gasq Death by exposure to anoxic gas mixture andnot by physical obstruction of trachea/lungsq Trials using nitrogen and carbon dioxideq Trials using small buildingsq Laboratory scale trials with animals
  39. 39. Foam generat ionq Low density foamproduced using standardfire fighting foamgenerator from surfactantand waterq Instead of air, anoxic gasis used to create bubblesq Surfactant specificationand quantity is the keyq Fragile dry foam needednot not strong wet foam
  40. 40. Liquid Nit rogen& VaporiserqNitrogen is cheaper,readily available andnon-aversiveqNitrogen has ahigher boiling pointand can bevaporised moreeasily than carbondioxide
  41. 41. Gas Deliveryq Gas (not liquid)delivered to foamgenerator at close toambient temperatureqFoam rapidly fillsbuilding
  42. 42. Princ iplesq Foam surfactant mustbe robust enough tohold gas and fill buildingto required heightBUTq Fragile enough so thatbird movement breaksbubble and releasesgasq accepted by the birdsq Further development required before it can be considered forpractical on-farm use
  43. 43. Ac k now ledgem ent sThank s t oqBristol UniversityqRoslin InstituteqSilsoe Research Institute and University ofLondonqCommercial partners and poultry farmersqState veterinary service staff who developedpractical training and lead field operationsqDefra colleagues in AWD