Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Neutralizing risks instead of stamping-out

897 views

Published on

The latest outbreak of High Pathogen Avian Influenza in the USA and Canada in the spring of this year and the inability to avoid animal welfare catastrophes ultimately proves that new emergency response strategies are needed. Strategies that are based on taking away the source of infection instead of killing as many animals as possible within 24 hours, regardless the consequences.

The statement that “It’s possible that human infections with these viruses may occur” and that “these viruses have not spread easily to other people” is confusing. Humans can become infected without showing clinical signs. They can become the major carrier of the infection.

Especially during depopulation activities, viruses easily transmit through responders. Tasks like taking layers out of their cages and transport the birds manually through the narrow walkways between the cages, and disposal of infected animals are specific risks that need to be avoided. Simply switching of the electricity so that sick birds don’t have to be handled is not the solution.

Although humans are supposed to be less susceptible, they can become carrier of the virus. Only the highest level of biosecurity could prevent the transmission through the humans and materials that have been in direct contact with infected animals and materials.

Simply switching of the electricity so that sick birds don’t have to be handled is not the solution. Avoid killing animals is always the better option and in Germany, the discussion on the strategy based on neutralizing risks and is in the making. Avoiding situations demands a proactive role of the poultry industry.

Published in: News & Politics
  • Be the first to comment

Neutralizing risks instead of stamping-out

  1. 1. © 2015 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 2 • Contact between migratory birds and poultry • Wind-borne spreading between farms, via dust and feathers • Absence of bio security protection at the farm level • Contact between humans and infected birds Pathways for transmission
  2. 2. © 2015 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 3 • “Estimating the Per-Contact Probability of Infection by Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H7N7) Virus during the 2003 Epidemic in The Netherlands” (2012) • “Avian influenza transmission risks: Analysis of biosecurity measures and contact structure in Dutch poultry farming” (September 2012) • “Modelling the Wind-Borne Spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus between Farms” (February 2012) • “Genetic Data Provide Evidence for Wind-Mediated Transmission of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza” (March 2013) Wageningen University is leading in research on spreading of avian Influenza transmission:
  3. 3. What happened in Holland during the outbreak of H7N7, March 2003? © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 4 • 270 million Euro direct costs • 29 786 804 birds culled • 1.134 farms • € 238.000/ farm; € 9,31/ bird 5.4% 10.7% 72.8% 11.2% Infected Suspected Preventive Welfare
  4. 4. © 2015 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 85% 15% Infected poultry species Chickens Turkeys Mixed poultry
  5. 5. © 2015 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 3% 97% Infections under small farming (free range) and hobby farming Infected/suspected Preventive
  6. 6. © 2015 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 23% 68% 9% Infected farm type Chickens Turkeys Mixed poultry
  7. 7. © 2015 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 79.2%12.0% 8.7% Type of farms infected during the H7N7 outbreak in Holland Labor-intensive farms (Layers/parent stock) Labor-extensive farms (broiler/breeders) Turkey farms
  8. 8. © 2015 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 9 All current culling techniques were developed during the outbreak in Holland without prior testing: • Stable gassing with CO2 en CO • Container gassing • Electrocution (waterbath method) Because of its labor intensity, large-scale culling most likely contributed to the intensity of the outbreak Responders became spreaders of the virus: 50% of all responders showed antibodies and most likely became carrier of the virus Large-scale culling contributed to the spreading
  9. 9. Each farm type needs a specific culling method Labour intensive farms were culled using container gassing and electrocution  Layers  Biological farms  (Grand)Parent stock  Breeders  Ducks Labour extensive farms were culled by stable gassing  Turkeys  Broilers  Pullets © 2015 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB
  10. 10. All culling methods are extremely labour intensive  Poultry was caught or taken out of the cage by hand and carried out to the culling equipment outside the house  Large packages of gas bottles, containers, power generators, frond loaders etc., needed to be in place before the culling procedure could start  In case of stable gassing, large numbers of responders needed to enter the infected house and take out the carcasses and bring these to the disposal containers © 2015 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB
  11. 11. © 2015 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 12 Labour intensive farms are extremely vulnerable to get infected • 4 727 124 of in total 29 370 427 birds were infected/suspected • More than 79% of all farms with the notification Infected/suspected were labour intensive farms, indicating that poultry workers were most likely responsible for the infection of the flocks, due to the lack of following strict bio security protocols • Only 12% of labour-extensive farms with young birds got infected, indicating that farms with a high-level of bio security and limited contact between humans and poultry are better protected against infections • Only 3% of the small Free range and hobby farms got infected, indicating that direct contact between migratory birds and poultry plays only a marginal role We do know that animal-to-human contact is the key transmitter of the infection
  12. 12. To summarize © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 13 1. Layer farms and turkey farms are extremely at risk 2. More than 79% of all farms with the notification Infected/suspected were labour intensive farms, indicating that poultry workers were most likely responsible for the infection of the flocks, due to the lack of following strict bio security protocols 3. Only 12% of labour-extensive farms with young birds got infected, indicating that farms with a high-level of bio security and limited contact between humans and poultry are better protected against infections 4. Only 3% of the small Free range and hobby farms got infected, indicating that direct contact between migratory birds and poultry plays only a marginal role
  13. 13. To summarize © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 14 5. Depopulation of broiler farms and hobby farms around infected layer farms turned out to be a destruction of resources 6. Complex culling methods are extremely costly 7. Stamping-out as a strategy is ineffective 8. Stamping-out caused distribution and spreading of the virus
  14. 14. What happened in Iowa during AI outbreak in the USA spring 2015? © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 15
  15. 15. Stamp it out! Within 24 hours:  Kill all animals  Destruction all carcasses  Clean and disinfect the establishments © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 16
  16. 16. Stamp it out!  71 farms were infected, of witch 35 caged layer farms  33.1 million birds were killed, of witch 32 million layers were caged layers  average layer farm-size is 913.000 layers  Total costs in Iowa: 1 billion USD (total costs USA 8 billion USD  $ 27,4 million per layer farm/ $30 per layer © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 17
  17. 17. Stamp it out!  Approx. 1,000 to 1,500 workers involved with Stamping- Out activities per farm  Total costs in Iowa: 1 billion USD (total costs USA 8 billion USD  Loss of nearly 8,500 jobs  Nearly $427 million in lost additional value, more than half of which is income  Per layer farm, in average 1.188 tons of carcasses (average weight 1,3 kg/layer) were disposed © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 18
  18. 18. Complete failure of Stamping out strategy  Per September 18, 2015: Ventilation Shutdown method is allowed in the USA  Emergency response by the flip of a switch  Unprecedented financial Government support for the poultry industry  breach of OIE Terrestrial Code  Economic advantage for the US poultry industry on the international market  Total defeat for animal welfare friendly production © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 19
  19. 19. © 2015 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 20 Concentrate on the different drivers • Introduction of the infection into the farm • Onward-spread between farms • Transmission through contact structure between farms • Wind-mediated spread • Transmission via rodents and farm dogs Neutralize the risks of spreading • Isolate risks • Avoid direct contact • Avoid large scale operations Emergency Response on a National level: Focus on epidemiology and the risks of spreading
  20. 20. © 2015 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 21 • Seal off the area completely and isolate all who are living/working on the farm • Reduce number of responders to an absolute minimum and if possible, use the farmers’ own labour force to depopulate the farm • Prevent contact between responders and infected birds, carcasses and contaminated materials as much as possible • Neutralize virus loads on carcasses before handling • Avoid the use complex culling & disposal techniques Focus on Neutralising infection/contamination risks
  21. 21. © 2015 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 22 • Create a farm-based emergency response plan • Make an inventory of all possible transmission routes • Possible introduction routes • Possible contamination risks • Possible routes for further spreading • Use this plan as the basis for the farms’ bio security plan • Define what would be the most appropriate culling & disposal technique • Compensate and reward animal owners and farmers based on their active involvement Emergency Response on local level: Focus on active involvement of animal owner and farmer
  22. 22. Neutralize risks instead of stamping-out © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 23

×