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AVT session 4: Cleaning, Disinfection & Biosecurity


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This fourth presentation of a series of 6 AVT presentations on Cleaning, Disinfection & Biosecurity risks related to outbreaks of Avian Influenza.

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AVT session 4: Cleaning, Disinfection & Biosecurity

  1. 1. Harm Kiezebrink Research Fellow Faculty of Veterinary Science Queensland University
  2. 2. Avian Influenza is very easy to transmit… Unless you decontaminate… © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 2
  3. 3. Poultry workers can be infected very easy…  Some soaps when used with water  Many household detergents / cleaners  Disinfectants and Chemicals Unless they deactivate the virus by keeping themselves clean… © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 3
  4. 4. Viruses can be gone with the wind… Stop all traffic on – to – from the farm  Park cars from responders at least 300 meters away from the farm against the wind direction  Strict entrance control  Ban housing of workers on the premises © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 4
  5. 5. Viruses are masters in escaping…  Red zone - immediately around the IP – Restrict access only to directly responders involved in culling activities  Orange zone – accessing the Red zone – Restrict only to Cleaning & Disinfection staff  Yellow zone – Exclusion zone – No access allowed  Green zone – Restricted area dedicated for administration, registration, staging and storage for the operation Unless you contain them… © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 5
  6. 6. Avian Influenza is a survivor… Virus can survive:  Up to 4 days at 22oC  35 days at 4oC in poultry manure  > 30 days at 0oC in water  Several days in carcasses at room temperature or up to 23 days if refrigerated … unless it’s destroyed by cleaning & disinfection © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 6
  7. 7. Decontamination  During an avian influenza outbreak, heavy contamination ( environment, people and equipment) occurs during:  Physical contact with infected animals and contaminated materials  Culling  Carcass disposal  Cleaning & Disinfection  Handling manure, bedding, and debris from equipment  Transportation  Decontamination is the process of removing, destroying, or reducing the activity of unwanted contaminants such as bacteria, fungus, and viruses  Decontamination of personnel, equipment and materials is necessary to keep the virus from spreading to other locations © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 7
  8. 8. Why decontaminate?  To stop viruses from spreading  To prevent human infections  To prevent reintroduction of infections  To maintain biosecurity at farms and live bird markets  To allow for safe repopulation © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 8
  9. 9. Decontamination in 3 steps 1. Stop virus reproduction 2. Cleaning 3. Disinfection © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 9
  10. 10. Step 1 Reduce the virus load • Soak bird carcasses directly after culling with disinfectant or soapy water • Close down the house and wait 24 hours before removal of the carcasses • Prevent the infection to be transmitted by rodents: begin pest control program © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 10
  11. 11. Step 2 Cleaning • Wet cleaning reduces the risk of aerosolization of virus • Use a detergent and low pressure washer (if available) and thoroughly soak − Ceilings − Walls − Floors − Nest boxes − Feeders − Fans and other equipment • Allow 10 minutes for detergent to penetrate and then scrub everything accessible with a scrub brush © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 11
  12. 12. Step 2 Cleaning  Clean first before you disinfect: Organic material such as excrement or dirt absorbs disinfectants and makes them less effective  Always work from the top down  Start at the ceilings, then the rafters, then the walls (top to bottom) and finally the floors  Wooden equipment is hard to clean and disinfect © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 12
  13. 13. Always be alert!  Viruses survive well in water  Water can spread viruses through ground water  Rinsing with water is not enough  Both detergents and disinfectants must be used © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 13
  14. 14. Phase 3 Disinfection  Avian influenza virus is killed by:  Sunlight  Heat  Drying  Most soaps and disinfectants; they destroy the envelope and thus kill the virus © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 14
  15. 15. Disinfectants Chemical Group Examples Oxidizing agents Hydrogen Peroxide Virkon® Alcohols Isopropyl, Ethanol Halogens Betadine (iodine) Sodium hypochlorite Phenolics Lysol Tek-Trol Quaternary Ammonium Roccal, Quatracide Coal Tar Distillates Cresol and Cresolic Acid Aldehydes Glutaral, Glutaraldehyde, Formaldehyde © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 15
  16. 16. Phase 3 Disinfecting Virkon® is the most commonly used disinfection product during outbreak situations  To electrical equipment like fans and other poultry equipment, using a soaked cloth  To Spray all areas, including cages, floors, walls & ceilings, barnyards, and paths  Allow the disinfectant to soak for at least 24 hours before rinsing © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 16
  17. 17. VIRKON® How to apply  Virkon ® is usually sold as a pinkish gray or yellowish orange powder  The powder is mixed with water to form a 1 or 2% solution  The color is useful because the color fades with time indicating that the disinfectant needs to be replaced © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 17
  18. 18. PPE Personal Protection Equipment  N-95 Respirator  Tyvek Coveralls  Shoe Covers  Goggles  Aprons  Gloves © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 18
  19. 19. The use of Lye, Potash and lime water  Use sodium hydroxide (lye) or potassium hydroxide (potash) to turn carcass and other infected organic materials into a sterile aqueous solution  Disinfect village footpaths and roads with calcium hydroxide (lime water)  Allow disinfectant to soak in for at least 30 minutes © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 19
  20. 20. Related risks Transportation  Transmission of the virus has been strongly linked to transporting live birds, contaminated dead birds or litter in vehicles  Bird feces and litter are amongst the biggest dangers for spreading the avian influenza virus:  Disinfect cages and crates when moving birds  Be sure to decontaminate all vehicles and equipment! © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 20
  21. 21. The aftermath  Once the virus has been destroyed, the manure and feed should be removed down to a bare concrete floor.  If the floor is earthen, one inch or more of soil should also be removed.  The manure should be buried at least 5 feet deep.  Manure can also be composted.  At least 90 days, depending on conditions  Tightly cover with black polyethylene sheets to prevent the entry of birds, insects, and rodents © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 21
  22. 22. Recovery  Test the entire infected area and its equipment for the occurrence of infections and repeat the decontamination procedure every 7 days (both cleaning and disinfecting) as long as clinical testing on infections are positive  Sentinel birds may help to determine if disinfection is complete  Repopulation should not occur until the outbreak has been declared eradicated  OIE recommends waiting 21 days after removal of last infected birds © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 22
  23. 23. Biosecurity  Biosecurity practices are followed to prevent the spread of disease, including the creation and implementation of a biosecurity plan.  A biosecurity plan is a set of procedures that are followed during daily operations to prevent the spread of disease at a worksite and should include:  Prevention of AI  Detection of AI  Quarantine of AI infected birds and materials  Control of AI outbreaks  Workers should follow the decontamination plan and cleaning and disinfecting procedures in the site’s biosecurity plan to avoid carrying the AI virus off their worksite. © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 23
  24. 24. Involve the staff Be aware of the signs Use posters  Be sure everyone involved in handling poultry watches for signs of disease among flock and/or unusual or suspect mortality Notify the vet  If type or number of deaths is suspicious (over 5%), notify local veterinary authorities Notify the community  While the veterinary authorities conduct an outbreak investigation in the surrounding area, notify the community of the incident, especially neighbors, (family of) staff members and suppliers © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 24
  25. 25. Biosecurity on commercial poultry facilities Isolation  Keep flocks separate from all other animals, especially wild birds  Remove items that attract wild birds & pests (standing water, weeds, spilled feed, etc.)  Control pests and predators that may spread disease Traffic control  Signs should be posted at farm entrances to stop casual visitors from entering the farm  No visitors should enter poultry houses without prior arrangement with the farm manager  No visitors that have visited other chickens that day should be allowed entry  Employees should not be shared between farms © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 25
  26. 26. Farm workers Risks awareness Actively involve poultry staff  Poultry workers should be trained and supervised in active bio security  Poultry workers should adhere to biosecurity principles such as covering food & water and removing other attractants on the farm to keep wild birds away  Poultry workers who have been in contact with wild birds (hunting) or other animals on life markets should not be in contact with poultry on the farm without cleaning and disinfecting themselves  Authorize one of the poultry workers to create/implement a biosecurity improvement plan © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 26
  27. 27. Farm location Avoidable risks  Poultry workers should not live in dorms at the farm, the risks are simply too big that they cause infections to enter the farm  Biosecurity is not enforceable in situations where workers live their normal life in and around their dorm:  No fruit trees or growing vegetables  No pets like cats and dogs  No unnecessary visitors to the farm  No laundry outside the dorm © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 27
  28. 28. Farm location Avoidable risks  The farm needs to be free from bushes, trees, and wheat. They create locations for birds to rest, nest and feed.  Areas around feed mills become local dining places for wild birds and rodents if spills are not removed  Cranes feed themselves on feed rests and insects in manure, especially around fermentation facilities if not capped clean © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 28
  29. 29. Biosecurity Task: Identify at least 10 biosecurity infractions in this picture © 2014 Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB 29
  30. 30. Question and Answer What’s on your mind?  30 30 © AVT Applied Veterinary Technologies Europe AB Address details: c/o INTRED, Södra Hamnen 2, 45142 Uddevalla, Sweden 556792-1944 - Phone: +44 7452 272 358- E-mail: