Background of the study
Name the greatest accomplishment of the last century. Landing on the moon?
Computers?Biogenic engi...
Company resources are men, material, machine, money, method, information,
and Time. Compare to other resources only people...
Researchers have identified in Mahinda Palalogistics industry a warehouse
assistant’s per month basic salary is about Rs. ...
hiresrate (3.2 percent) and separations rate(3.0 percent)(separation rate means
total turnover rate) also were little chan...
1. To reduce factors affecting to labor turnover
2. Toestablish health and safety practices and mitigate hazards
3. To pro...
The findings of the study will help to improve organizational efficiency.
Mahinda Pala can attract employees from competit...
Robert Owen (1771-1858) was a man ahead of his time. During his lifetime, he
endeavored to improve the health, education, ...
Henri Fayol's Principles of Management managers in the early 1900s had very
few external resources to draw upon to guide a...
use insights from the behavioral sciences that regularly changed when different
behavioral scientists offered distinct alt...
of replacing each employee is estimated to be in the thousands of dollars (Gooley
2001; MuiUns,2002; Wilson 2001) (Chad an...
Pierce and Dunham (1992) similarly reported that the implementation of a 12hour roster actually reduced fatigue levels. On...
the generally beneficial effect of schedule flexibility differs by gender and the
employment arrangement of a worker’s spo...
(http://images.fanpop.com/images/image_uploads/The-Office-the-office556868_1024_683.jpg, Accessed: 20 September 2013).
(ht...
(http://patriotupdate.com/wpcontent/uploads/2011/12/People_Working_in_Warehouse_42-19942053.jpg,
Accessed: 20 September 20...
Health is Wealth

(http://floost.com/images/1347976989.8123__396056_365667193511152_83716
8058_n.jpg, Accessed: 20 Septemb...
Long-term employees or employees with substantial product and service
knowledge are an asset, especially when you have new...
Conceptual framework
Basic Salary

H1a

Turnover of

12 hours

H1b

roaster

H2a

operational level
labors
Organization

H...
Methodology

(http://www.answercoalition.org/march-forward/statements/what-is-natoanyway.html, Accessed: 20 September 2013...
Advance Level Education, and 17% had not been school education. 67%
reported that they do not havedependents.

Limitation ...
References
The Strategic Human Resource Management Mode (2007) Available at:
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free...
Chad, W. A., Patricia, J.D. (2003) WAREHOUSE OPERATIONS EMPLOYEES:
LINKING PERSONORGANIZATION FIT, JOB SATISFACTION, AND C...
http://humanresources.uchicago.edu/fpg/forms/compensation/FlexibleWorkOptio
nsGuide.pdf (no date) (Accessed: 27 September ...
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Human

  1. 1. Background of the study Name the greatest accomplishment of the last century. Landing on the moon? Computers?Biogenic engineering? Cloning of life forms?And what awaits us in the new millennium?Routine travel to distant planets?Human longevity unimaginable in the past? Working and shopping without ever stepping out of our homes? Growing our own food in the kitchen? Flying to any destination of our choice in automatically piloted flying cars? Living in undersea settlements? The possibilities are immense. Indeed, our future achievements may be limited only by our imagination. All major achievements and technological advances have a common feature: organizations(The Strategic Human Resource Management Mode, 2007). The warehouse receives material from many plants. Then the material will be consolidated to supply to a single customer or a single destination. The warehouse receives materials from the manufacturing industries to supply to a number of customers. It breaks the bulk material into smaller packages and supplies it to individual customers and helps in final processing such as labeling, finishing touches, etc. Especially,storing is essential for seasonal goods. If the demand is in a particular season, industry can do manufacturing throughout year until the right time comes. (http://www.wtgnews.com/wp-ontent/uploads/2010/08/supply_chain_diagram.jpg, Accessed: 20 September 2013) 1
  2. 2. Company resources are men, material, machine, money, method, information, and Time. Compare to other resources only people are active, organize, and make decisions on other resources, but behavior is complex and unpredictable. Without people nobody can run a business, no business can survive, and no business can grow. SubhirChowdhury has described the successful 21st-century organization will not take the loyalty of talented people for granted. It will constantly try to recruit and keep them. … The mutual commitment of an employer and an employee will be one of the most an important factor for a 21st-century organization(The Strategic Human Resource Management Mode, 2007). We have identified a family consist of three (parents and son or daughter) per month cost of electricity bill minimum 2,500, water bill minimum 1,500, and 3 meals Rs.21, 600.There are many more expenses: telephone bills, saloon expenses, clothes, washing powder, etc… 2
  3. 3. Researchers have identified in Mahinda Palalogistics industry a warehouse assistant’s per month basic salary is about Rs. 7,500, attendance bonus Rs.1500 (1 days absence full amount is paid, 2 days absence – 50% is paid and over 2 days - no payment), and Quarterly Retention Bonus of Rs.1500 (after every 3 months receive) and over Time 1.5 X hours worked. (http://2.bp.blogspot.com/cv5HWzqYg8/URMDrQIVqnI/AAAAAAAAFJY/FQkFtRZBwCw/s1600/Suicide_in_ srilanka.jpg, Accessed: 25 September 2013). Awarehouse worker should be energetic, skill on Reach Trucks and Fork Lifts, and like to works in a highly mechanized environment. There were 3.7 million job openings on the last business day of July, little changed from June, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. The 3
  4. 4. hiresrate (3.2 percent) and separations rate(3.0 percent)(separation rate means total turnover rate) also were little changed in July (Bureau of labor statistics U.S. department of labor, 2013). A significant labor turnover rate of 64% hasin Mahinda Pala Logistics Industry. There for this research forces on that particular topic. Research problem The knowledge lost from a departing employee is not a short-term Problem; it is a long-term problem that breeds other problems and reduces an organization's effectiveness. The employee can take with him relevant knowledge, needed to even operational and ongoing organization activity (Filipe and Luis, 2012, p.157). This research is aimed at the factors affecting to labor turnover and its impact on organization performance with special reference to Mahinda Pala logistics industry. Research objectives 4
  5. 5. 1. To reduce factors affecting to labor turnover 2. Toestablish health and safety practices and mitigate hazards 3. To provide health and safety equipment 4. To offer competitive salary 5. To establish Work Schedule Flexibility 6. To increase performance of the organization Research Questions (http://irwanfazri.hubpages.com/hub/The-Causes-of-Accident-At-Work-Claim, Accessed: 19 September 2013). What is the current level of labor turnover in this warehouse sector? What are the factors affecting to labor turnover in this warehouse sector? What is the relative important of these factors on labor turnover? Are labor turnover burden problem on this industry and what are the actions to be taken in order to overcome these problems? What is the relationship between labor turnover and organizational performance? Significance of the study 5
  6. 6. The findings of the study will help to improve organizational efficiency. Mahinda Pala can attract employees from competitors because of competitive salary, work schedule flexibility and safety environment. Good health and safety practices can reduce industry cost and protect the law. This research factors will help for government to enact a competitive salary as a minimum wage for factory workers. Retailer can provide uninterrupted services for customersand retain their customers in order to gain competitive advantage. This research will benefit for future researcher academics and other students for their studies. Literature Review We live in the present. We plan for our future. When you work on your plans, knowledge about history helps to mitigate risk andprovide intelligence. Then you can easily achieve your goals. In history, labors were treated as machines and believed that the environment is not changing. Before 1771, there was not any theory about labors. Industries went on experiments to increase efficiency to be effective. People are the key on those experiments: How reduce unnecessary movements? What is needed to motivate people? Do workers need a relationship? All were studying about people for organization’s performance. 6
  7. 7. Robert Owen (1771-1858) was a man ahead of his time. During his lifetime, he endeavored to improve the health, education, well-being and rights of the working class. This driving ambition to create a better society for all took him around the world, from a small mill village in Lanarkshire in Scotland to New Harmony, Indiana in America with varied success (http://www.robert-owen.com/, no date). According to Charles Babbage 1832 that the master manufacturer, by dividing the work to be executed into different processes, each requiring different degrees of skill or force, can purchase exactly that precise quantity of both which is necessary for each process; whereas, if the whole work were executed by one workman, that person must possess sufficient skill to perform the most difficult, and sufficient strength to execute the most laborious, of the operations into which the art is divided (http://www.adm.fukuokau.ac.jp/fu844/home2/Ronso/Shogaku/C50-2+3/C5023_0119.pdf, no date). According to F. W. Taylor (1856-1915) devised his system "Scientific Management"factory leader should develop a standard method for doing each job using scientific management, workers should be selected for a job based on their skills and abilities, work should be eliminate unnecessary hand movements, and wage incentives should be provide to increase efficiency. Henry Gantt (1861-1919) is the first person to talk,factories should worry about what they do to the society (corporate social responsibilities) because of the damages was done by world war to the society. 7
  8. 8. Henri Fayol's Principles of Management managers in the early 1900s had very few external resources to draw upon to guide and develop their management practice. But thanks to early theorists like Henri Fayol (1841-1925), managers began to get the tools they needed to lead and manage more effectively. Fayol, and others like him, are responsible for building the foundations of modern management theory(http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/henrifayol.htm#sthash.CvV6fF8v.dpuf, no date). According Max Weber (1864-1920), bureaucracy is the most efficient form of organization. The organization has a well-defined line of authority. It has clear rules and regulations which are strictly followed. Elton Mayo (1880-1949) founded the Human Relations Movement. Experiments undertaken by Mayo took place at the Hawthorne plant in the USA during the 1930s. His work illustrated that if the company or managers took an interest in employees and cared for them, it had a positive effect on their motivation (http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/arm/motivation-within-an-innovative-workenvironment/mayo-human-relations-approach.html#ixzz2fkHIQeJX, no date). Abraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs model in order to motivate people. 1940-50s USA (http://www.strategosinc.com/maslow_hierarchy.htm, Accessed: 20 September 2013). Challenges for managers in difficult situations and the reality, that human behavior is complex. This complicated the problem for managers attempting to 8
  9. 9. use insights from the behavioral sciences that regularly changed when different behavioral scientists offered distinct alternatives (http://www.managementheaven.com/behavioral-approach-to-management/, no date). From 1980 to 2000, industries concentrated on input, output and productivity because of they believed the environment is dynamic. Output = Productivity Input Beyond 2000, Industries give more prominent to creativity and Innovation.Industry needs planners and doers because the environment is known as turbulent. Human resource management is the process of managing human talent to achieve an organization’s objectives (Snell, Bohlander and Vohra, 2012, p.04). The shortage of logistics personnel is not a new phenomenon (Richardson 1989). For example, driver retention in the motor carrier industry has long been considered a critical issue. Annual driver turnover rates average 100%, but some companies are as high as 200 to 300% (Kelter and Ozment 1999a). Retention rates aren't much more encouraging in the warehousing industry. Annual estimates indicate that at least 20% and in some cases as much as 75% of all warehouse workers will leave their job within one year of hire date, and the cost 9
  10. 10. of replacing each employee is estimated to be in the thousands of dollars (Gooley 2001; MuiUns,2002; Wilson 2001) (Chad and Patricia, 2003, p.171). Number of employees who left during the year (Number of employees at the beginning of the year + Number of employees at the end of the year DC manager performance will go down because of higher labor turnover rates. He cannotable to manage day to day operations without sufficient number of labors. Top layer people, manufacturing industries and retailers will ask reasons for slow operation. The labor turnover rateshave a significant impact on DC manager turnover rates. Work schedules have become a topic of considerable discussion and experimentation in recent years, both in the United States and in Western Europe (Thomas, A.M., 1978, p.31). 12 hours’ work on roaster is one of a main reason for labor turnover at Mahinda Pala logistics according to our research data. Mike (2013) provided new research has found workers suffer many problems associated with working 12-hour shifts and rotating shifts. These problems include a disturbed body-clock, shortened and distorted sleep, and disturbed family and social life. According to Mike (2013) tired workers are not militant, they do not stand up for their rights at work, and they do not organize. Indeed, they never see many of their workmates on the same sites, all they want to do is sleep in between their shifts, and all the young workers want to do is party. Thus in one fell swoop, the mine owners effectively weakened the mining unions, at a very critical time — when these same unions had come out of the deadly ’70s with many safety concessions, all since vanished. 10
  11. 11. Pierce and Dunham (1992) similarly reported that the implementation of a 12hour roster actually reduced fatigue levels. One explanation for this effect may be that on a 12-hour roster the workers have extended sleep periods during their days off. In contrast, Rosa (1991) studied the long term effects of the 12-hour scheduling using a fatigue battery test. The results indicated that grammatical reasoning reaction time and auditory reaction time was slower after a 7 month and a 3.5 year period. Interestingly, there was no deterioration in performance or alertness during the week suggesting a day to day recover (http://www.heas.com.au/publications/twelvehour.htm, no date). Baker, Olson and Morisseau (1994) more recently have argued that the 12-hour roster may have positive consequences. For example, it may be safer to have employees work in order to finish a significant task (http://www.heas.com.au/publications/twelvehour.htm, no date). However, results indicated that stress and burnout was lower among workers engaged in all types of formal flexible arrangements, and that 30-50% of observed differences between workers engaged in flextime (either alone or combined with compressed workweeks) and those not engaged in a formal arrangement were explained by perceived flexibility. Evidence also indicated that 11
  12. 12. the generally beneficial effect of schedule flexibility differs by gender and the employment arrangement of a worker’s spouse or partner. Advocates suggest that workplace flexibility contributes to better health; in part because it helps workers better balance their work and family lives (Joseph et al., 2008, p.119). National surveys repeatedly show that workers seek flexibility as the key response to the competing demands of work and personal responsibilities. Many corporations with formal flexible work programs have reported positive results, including increased productivity, reduced absenteeism, and turnover (http://humanresources.uchicago.edu/fpg/forms/compensation/FlexibleWorkOptio nsGuide.pdf, no date). The employer must provide personal protective equipment for employees at work eg: metatarsal foot protection, non-prescription eye protection, prescription eyewear inserts/lenses for, full face respirators, goggles and face shields, firefighting PPE (helmet, gloves, boots, proximity suits, and full gear), hard hats, and hearing protection. The employer is not allowed to deduct those expenses from employee salary by rules and regulations. This is a huge cost for the organization. Because of this expenditure,employerpays a minimum basic salary for employee. (http://hoklife.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/office-1.jpg, Accessed: 20 September 2013). (http://brewing.cafedirect.co.uk/wpcontent/uploads/2010/02/FT14-OFFICE-TEA-PARTY-490x259.jpg, Accessed: 20 September 2013). 12
  13. 13. (http://images.fanpop.com/images/image_uploads/The-Office-the-office556868_1024_683.jpg, Accessed: 20 September 2013). (http://imgc.allpostersimages.com/images/P-473-48890/21/2164/WJACD00Z/posters/eitan-simanor-warehouse-workers-having-restbreak-at-carrit-moran-company-s-tea-warehouses-at-kolkata-port.jpg, Accessed: 20 September 2013). Promote openness and communication about safety in your organization. Solicit Feedback and involve every level of the organization in your safety goals. Safety committees should consist of individuals from various levels and departments within your organization. Trust is very important in this process. Employees must feel as though they can express thoughts and report accidents or incidents without fear of blame or punishment. A true safety culture promotes the positive and looks to change or fix the negative behavior (Sara, 2006, p.78). 13
  14. 14. (http://patriotupdate.com/wpcontent/uploads/2011/12/People_Working_in_Warehouse_42-19942053.jpg, Accessed: 20 September 2013). Watch your employees' backs (and necks and ...): Ergonomic injuries such as strained backs or necks represent one of the largest threats to your warehouse employees' health and comfort (Marty, 2007, p.42). (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3f/Sri_Lankan_garment_worke rs.jpg, Accessed: 25 September 2013). Likewise, recognizing that health is believed to play a crucial role in workplace performance and productivity, flexibility also provides a concrete lever to organizations for enhancing organizational performance (Joseph et al., 2008, p.119). 14
  15. 15. Health is Wealth (http://floost.com/images/1347976989.8123__396056_365667193511152_83716 8058_n.jpg, Accessed: 20 September 2013) Agyris (1971) believes that people are inclined by nature to expand psychology energy towards some purpose and that their personal needs tend to have a priority over organizational needs. People use their energy to subvert the end sought by organization if management fails to recognize their needs (Anwar et el., 2012, p.88). Basic salary is really important according to Sri Lankan life style for any employee. For EPF & ETF, employee deducting and employer contributingarefrom the basic salary. The maximum basic salary will give maximum retirement benefit. Another advantage is for employee that their earning per hour is calculating from their basic salary.The maximum basic salary will give maximum over time. Any bank for a housing loan first considering factor is his/her basic salary.Earning a good basic is a prestige for an employeein the society as well. We have already compared Sri Lanka cost of living and salary at the warehouse on our background of study. 15
  16. 16. Long-term employees or employees with substantial product and service knowledge are an asset, especially when you have new employees for whom the learning curve slows productivity. Retaining employees who, by virtue of their tenure and experience, understand and appreciate the company's philosophy, processes and policies can become excellent mentors for newly hired employees. In addition, retaining talent boosts your company's ability to provide higher quality products and services. Experienced, high-performing employees who are comfortable with sharing opinions and making suggestions for improvement can help you develop innovative ways to patent new ideas and products (http://www.ehow.com/info_7747234_benefits-retainingemployees.html#ixzz2fUdEW8lD, no date). Becca (2012) provided information about the PartnerIt.com research shows that some companies go as far as saying it costs at least three times an employee’s salary to fire and replace a bad hire. That number might seem outrageous, but some hidden costs that go into hiring and training, include the cost of advertising on a job website or fees to a recruiter. The time it takes for Human Resources and staff to review resumes, cover letters, background checks and interview potential candidates can take away from other parts of the company. It also might cost a company a lot of money in overtime to have someone do the work while trying to fill the position. This research showed labor turnover is affected by basic salary, 12 hours roaster and health and safety in work environment at Mahinda Pala Logistic. Labor turnover have a significant impact on organization performance 16
  17. 17. Conceptual framework Basic Salary H1a Turnover of 12 hours H1b roaster H2a operational level labors Organization Health and Safety H1c Performance conditions in work environment H2b H3a Turnover of DC manager Hypothesis Based on the conceptual framework developed for the research, following hypotheseswere proposed: H1a: Basic salary is significantly affecting to turnover of operational level labors. H1b: 12 hours roaster is significantly affecting to turnover of operational level labors. H1c: Health and Safety conditions in work environment is significantly affecting to turnover of operational level labors. H2a: Turnover of operational level labors is significantly affecting to Organization Performance. H2b: Turnover of operational level labors is significantly affecting to Turnover of DC Manager. H3a: Turnover of DC manager is significantly affecting to Organization Performance. 17
  18. 18. Methodology (http://www.answercoalition.org/march-forward/statements/what-is-natoanyway.html, Accessed: 20 September 2013) (http://pakpotpourri.wordpress.com/2012/09/08/nato-expansion-onto-globalstage-dangerous-threat-to-world-peace/, Accessed: 20 September 2013) If we know, where are they coming from? What is their culture? What is their education? Where are they wanted to be in the future? Then we can determine who they are, what are they want, how to motivate them. A self-administered survey questionnaire among selected individuals whose main job functions: factory, warehouse, apparels and constructionwere chosen as the mode for data collection. The response rate was 66 per cent of the original sample. With regard to demographics of the respondents, 66% were male and 44% werefemale. 47% were single and 53% were married. 30% from Colombo district which is the largest city and the commercial, industrial and cultural capital, 23% from Ampara district located in eastern province, 22% from Jaffna capital city of the Northern Province, 25% from Galle is a major city in Sri Lanka, situated on the southwestern tip of Sri Lanka. The mean age was 30 years. The average number of years of service in theany factory was one year.53% had G.C.E. Ordinary Level Education,40% had G.C.E. 18
  19. 19. Advance Level Education, and 17% had not been school education. 67% reported that they do not havedependents. Limitation of the study A self-administered survey questionnaire among 200 selected individuals from selected 3 districts whose main job functions in lower level at factories, warehouses, apparels and constructions was chosen as the mode for data collection. Time plan Activity Time Selecting topic and Design the research 2 Weeks Developing research proposal 1 Week Literature review 1 Week Data collection 3 Weeks Data analysis 1 Week Preparation of the report 2 Weeks Total Duration for the project 10 Weeks 19
  20. 20. References The Strategic Human Resource Management Mode (2007) Available at: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0070951764/447763/Chapter01.pdf (Accessed: 03 August 2013). http://www.keells.com/about-us.html (no date) (Accessed: 09 September 2013). Bureau of labor statistics U.S. department of labor, BLS. Available at: http://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/jolts.pdf (Accessed: 23 September 2013). Filipe, F., Luis, B.G. (2012) Employee Turnover Impact in Organizational Knowledge Management: The Portuguese Real Estate Case [Online] Available at: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=4&sid=88604c5b682e-4149-97d9-49f43a8fbe3f%40sessionmgr104&hid=121 (Accessed: 23 September 2013). http://www.robert-owen.com/ (no date) (Accessed: 20 September 2013). http://www.adm.fukuoka-u.ac.jp/fu844/home2/Ronso/Shogaku/C502+3/C5023_0119.pdf (no date) (Accessed: 22 September 2013). http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/henri-fayol.htm#sthash.CvV6fF8v.dpuf (no date) (Accessed: 23 September 2013). http://businesscasestudies.co.uk/arm/motivation-within-an-innovative-workenvironment/mayo-human-relations-approach.html#ixzz2fkHIQeJX, (no date) (Accessed: 23 September 2013). http://www.managementheaven.com/behavioral-approach-to-management/, (no date) (Accessed: 19 September 2013). Snell, Bohlander, Vohra (2012) Human Resource Management: A South-Asian Perspective, India: Cengage Learning India Pvt.Ltd. 20
  21. 21. Chad, W. A., Patricia, J.D. (2003) WAREHOUSE OPERATIONS EMPLOYEES: LINKING PERSONORGANIZATION FIT, JOB SATISFACTION, AND COPING RESPONSES[Online] Available at: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=fd85949f-aeb5-409f9c47-77837daca046%40sessionmgr115&vid=1&hid=121 (Accessed: 23 September 2013). Thomas A.M. (1978) The Rearranged Work Week: Evaluations of Different Work Schedules [Online] Available at: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=3ab71856-459d-4d5189c1-e2d31e9c44ec%40sessionmgr198&vid=1&hid=119 (Accessed: 23 September 2013). Mike, C. (2013)Green Left Weekly. Available at: https://www.greenleft.org.au/node/53879 (Accessed: 25 September 2013) Marty G., (2007) Keep the Safety Momentum alive: Expert advice on how to keep employees following safety initiatives [Online] Available at: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=e06a08fa-81ae-46c89125-9ec91fc9f8f7%40sessionmgr104&vid=1&hid=113 (Accessed: 25 September 2013). http://www.heas.com.au/publications/twelvehour.htm (no date) (Accessed: 25 September 2013) Joseph, G.G., Dawn S.C., Sandee S., (2008) Schedule flexibility and stress: Linking formal flexible arrangements and perceived flexibility to employee health[Online] Available at: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=d966fd8d-3b68-4d41bda0-c151aefe08cd%40sessionmgr104&vid=1&hid=119(Accessed: 23 September 2013). 21
  22. 22. http://humanresources.uchicago.edu/fpg/forms/compensation/FlexibleWorkOptio nsGuide.pdf (no date) (Accessed: 27 September 2013). SARA, S.H., (2006) Changing human behavior takes time —and education [Online] Available at: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=6f24aae7-8510-4abaae3e-e95fee105080%40sessionmgr111&vid=1&hid=103(Accessed: 25 September 2013). Joseph, G.G., Dawn S.C., Sandee S., (2008) Schedule flexibility and stress: Linking formal flexible arrangements and perceived flexibility to employee health[Online] Available at: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=d966fd8d-3b68-4d41bda0-c151aefe08cd%40sessionmgr104&vid=1&hid=119(Accessed: 23 September 2013). Anwar, A.S.G.S., Lawal, M.A., Muhammad, B.J., Shaikh, F.M., (2012) Motivation as a Tool for Effective Staff Productivity in the Public Sector: A Case Study of Raw Materials Research and Development Council of Nigeria [Online] Available at: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=b9d802bd-0b284f34-8ab9-f850367053c9%40sessionmgr112&vid=1&hid=121 (Accessed: 26 September 2013). http://www.ehow.com/info_7747234_benefits-retainingemployees.html#ixzz2fUdEW8lD (no date) (Accessed: 23 September 2013). Becca, B. (2012) BeccaBabicz social media professional, Available at: http://beccababicz.com/2012/05/05/the-hidden-benefits-of-retaining-employees/ (Accessed on 27 September 2013). 22

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