Heavy metals from industrial
processes can accumulate in
nearby lakes and rivers. These
are toxic to marine life and can
affect the rest of the food
Industrial waste contains toxic
compounds that damage the health
of aquatic animals and those who
eat them. Toxins affect the
reproductive success of marine
life and disrupt the structure of an
Microbial pollutants from sewage
often result in infectious diseases
that infect aquatic life and
terrestrial life through drinking
water. This causes diseases such
as cholera and typhoid fever.
Organic matter and nutrients
causes an increase in aerobic
algae and deplete oxygen level.
This is called eutrophication and
causes the suffocation of fish
and other aquatic organisms.
Sulphate particles from acid
rain make the water acidic. This
damages the health of marine
life and often increases the
number of mortalities within an
Suspended particles can reduce
the amount of sunlight penetrating
the water, disrupting the growth of
photosynthetic plants and micro-
organisms. When present in fresh
water, they reduce the quality of
drinking water for humans.
Cholera – a bacterial disease
which infects the small intestine
Typhoid Fever- a bacterial
Hepatitis– caused by viruses or
toxins like alcohol, leading to
inflammation of the liver
E-Coli Infections- a bacterial
disease which causes food
Malaria- caused by protist,
leading to fever and headaches
Dengue- viral disease, leading to
fever, headache, muscle and joint
pains, and skin rash
leakages and oil pollution
• When untreated water is drained off in large quantities
into rivers, it stagnates the river.
• Effluents contained in sewage water contain
innumerable pathogens and harmful chemicals that
spread various diseases.
• Other problems include eutrophication, poisoning and
killing aquatic organisms, etc .
• Waste materials are often deposited by
people, factories and industries, tankers and
ships, etc into water bodies. This leads to
• The adverse effects of marine pollution are two-
a) The wastes that are dumped into the oceans
tend to have toxic substances which soak in all
the oceanic oxygen leading to a marked
depletion of oxygen available to mammals and
other fishes causing them to die in their natural
b) The toxic substances consumed by the fishes
lead to complications in the humans consuming
these affected fishes.
• Many industries use freshwater as a source to carry
away harmful chemicals and waste away from the
plant and dump them into rivers, lakes and oceans.
• This waste includes some harmful pollutants such as
asbestos, lead, mercury, nitrates, phosphates, oils,
sulphur, petrochemicals and dangerous salts. These
pollutants may cause a great threat to living beings.
Underground storage leakages
and oil pollution…
• Underground storage tanks often
store substances like petroleum. If UST’s made
from steel pipes are directly exposed to the
environment, the steel can corrode and cause
leakages, affecting surrounding soil and
• Besides, oceans are polluted by oil on a daily
basis from oil spills, run-offs, etc. An oil spill
from a tanker is a severe problem because there
is such a huge quantity of oil being spilt into
one place. Oil cannot dissolve in water and
forms a thick sludge which suffocates fish,
gets caught in the feathers of marine birds
stopping them from flying and, blocks light
from photosynthetic aquatic plants.
• Sometimes, fertilizers used in farming run-off
into nearby water, causing an increase in
nutrient levels. This causes phytoplankton to
grow and reproduce more rapidly, resulting
in algal blooms.
• This bloom of algae disrupts normal ecosystem:
a) The algae may use up all the oxygen in the
water, leaving none for other marine life.
b) The bloom of algae may also block sunlight from
photosynthetic marine plants under the
c) Some algae even produce toxins that are harmful
to higher forms of life. This can cause problems
along the food chain and affect any animal that
feeds on them.
and Global warming…
• Atmospheric deposition is the pollution of water caused by
air pollution. A common example is that of acid rains- when
acid rains are deposited In water bodies, aquatic life is harmed.
• Besides, an increase in the surrounding temperature in turn
leads to an increase in the temperature of the water which can
result in the death of many aquatic organisms and disrupt
• One of the most terrifying effects of water
pollution came to light when pesticide
residues were found in bottled water.
• Between July and December 2002, the
Pollution Monitoring Laboratory of the New
Delhi-based Center for Science and
Environment (CSE) analyzed 17 brands of
bottled water commonly sold in areas that
fall within the national capital region of
• The manufacturing plants of most brands
are situated in the dirtiest industrial estates
or in the midst of agricultural fields.
•Most companies use bore-wells to pump out
water from the ground from depths varying
from 24-152 m below the ground.
•The raw water samples collected from the
plants also revealed the presence of
• Water is filtered using membranes with ultra-small
pores to remove fine suspended solids and all
bacteria and protozoa and even viruses.
• Manufacturers claim to use processes like
filtraton, activated charcoal adsorption process,
reverse osmosis and granular activated charcoal
• But the presence of pesticide residues points to
the fact that either the manufacturers do not use the
treatment process effectively or only treat a part of
the raw water.
• The low concentrations of pesticide
residues in bottled water do not cause
acute or immediate effects.
• However, repeated exposure even to
extremely minute amounts can result
in chronic effects like cancer, liver and
kidney damage, disorders of the
nervous system, damage to the
immune system and birth defects.
• After six months, it was reported that
these pesticides were found in popular
cold drink brands sold across the
country. This is because the main
ingredient in a cold drink is water.
• There were no standards for bottled water in India
till September 29, 2000, when the Union Ministry of
Health and Family Welfare issued a notification
amending the Prevention of Food Adulteration.
•The BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) certification
mark became mandatory for bottled water from
March 29, 2001.
• Crude oil and refined fuel spills
from tanker ship accidents have damaged
natural ecosystems in Alaska, the Gulf of
Mexico, the Galapagos Islands, France and
many other places.
• The quantity of oil spilled during accidents
has ranged from a few hundred tons to
several hundred thousand tons
• When an oil slick from a large oil spill reaches
the beach, the oil coats and clings to every rock
and grain of sand. If the oil washes into coastal
marshes, mangrove forests or other wetlands,
fibrous plants and grasses absorb the oil, which
can damage the plants and make the whole area
unsuitable as wildlife habitat.
• A 2007 study conducted by the National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA) found that 26, 000 gallons of oil
from the Exxon Valdez oil spill was still
trapped in the sand along the Alaska
• Oil, a product that we often use to keep warm,
can cause hypothermia in marine animals. As
oil mixes with water, it forms a substance
called “mousse”, which sticks to feathers and
• A bird's feathers are filled with air spaces that
act as insulation and keeps the bird warm.
When a bird gets coated with oil, the feathers
lose their insulating ability and the bird could
die of hypothermia.
• There’s so much damage done . The
oceans are still polluted with oil from
various incidents. With oil spills
happening regularly, more oil is being
dumped into the ocean- more animals are