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Au Psy492 E Portfolio Template For Slide Share Revised

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Au Psy492 E Portfolio Template For Slide Share Revised

  1. 1. 1<br />Undergraduate Studies portfolio<br />Charmaine Clark<br />Bachelors of Art in Psychology 2010<br />
  2. 2. Personal Statement<br />I became interested in Psychology when I realized that alcohol and drugs were a big factor within my family and community. These experiences lead me to enroll in college to pursue an associate degree in Early Childhood Development. I wanted to understand child development and how environmental factors affect a child’s development. After one year of study in Early Childhood Development, I wanted to learn more about the brain and how substance abuse affects it. This led me to change my major and pursue a Bachelors degree in Psychology. Nevertheless, I had a concern that psychology would be to far advance for my comprehension. After completing Psychology 101, all other psychology classes were less complicated. <br />In addition to my education experience, I volunteered through the AmeriCorps Vista program for two years as a Neighborhood Advocate. My job gave me the opportunity to help young mothers, ages sixteen to twenty-five years old find food, clothing and medical resources to maintain stability. I encountered many of the young women who had similar childhood experiences and abused drugs or alcohol. During my sophomore year of college, I obtained a position as a Case Manager for a head start program. I am able to continue helping families and promote healthy family relationships. My goal is to gain more experience working with diverse families and become a state employee as a social worker with Job and Family Services.<br />Psychology has many areas of study however, I decided I to study Psychology related to substance abuse. My experience with this study gave me a better understanding of family roles and how substance abuse can carry from one generation to the next. During my studies, I struggled with General Statistics. Math has been a major weakness for me and statistics was extremely hard to understand. However, after taking Psychological Statistics, I gained a better understanding of the subject and was able to apply the steps of statistics to research. In addition, my most inspirational course I took in psychology was Substance abuse and the family. This course gave me insights to my childhood experiences and courage to change the cycle of substance abuse within my family. <br />As an undergrad, I have learned to use the information I gained and apply it to my life with my family and the families I serve. I strongly believe that anyone can change but its how they change that makes the difference.<br />
  3. 3. Resume<br />Charmaine Clark<br />1663 Linwood Avenue<br />(614) 226-7172<br /><br /> <br />profile<br /> Strong background in supportive service.<br />Hard-working team player with great communication skills and a perfect attendance record.<br />Computer skills include Microsoft Windows, Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and Lotus Notes.<br />Experience in Early Childhood Development and Case Management.<br /> <br />experience<br /> <br />Child Development Council of Franklin County Inc<br />2008 - Present<br />Case Manager<br />Input daily notes into Genesis Earth data system within the organization.<br />Accurately take case notes and make referrals for low-income families in need.<br />Verify information to assist families with food, shelter, and employment.<br />Help families enroll in Head Start.<br />Conducted research for food and clothing in the community.<br />Prepare and attend events for head start and the community.<br />Utilized the Benefit Bank to prepare taxes and food stamps for families.<br />Community Properties of Ohio<br />2006-2008<br />Neighborhood Advocate<br /> Volunteer in the AmeriCorps Vista Program.<br />Maintain case notes for residents.<br />Verify information to assist residents with maintenance or property management issues.<br />Abstract information from residents file to set up meetings with property management.<br />Answered phones and accurately took maintenance orders.<br />Searched for community events for families.<br />Used the Benefit Bank for resources and complete applications for services.<br />Child Development Council of Franklin County, Inc<br />
  4. 4. Resume continued<br />2002-2002<br />Substitute Teacher<br />Advantage Preschool I<br />1989-1994<br />Preschool Teacher<br /> <br />EDUCATION<br /> <br />Argosy University<br />2008-2010<br />Bachelor Degree in Psychology: Related to Substance Abuse<br />Columbus State Community College<br />2001-2003<br />Post Associates Degree in Early Childhood Development<br />West High School<br />1987<br />Diploma<br />
  5. 5. Reflection<br /> The past two years at Argosy University , I gained the knowledge to continue to grow as a Social Worker . At Argosy University, I learned the importance of cultural diversity in the communities, ethics in research and concerns with substance abuse and the family. Even though, I have a good understanding of Psychology, as it relates to substance abuse, I still need to improve on my writing and research skills. My personal mission is to change the cycle of substance abuse within my family and community , by applying knowledge , experience and the courage to change myself. <br />
  6. 6. Table of Contents<br />Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy<br />Research Skills<br />Communication Skills: Oral and Written<br />Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br />Foundations of Psychology<br />Applied Psychology<br />Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />**Include work samples and projects with a Title Page and organized accordingly to demonstrate each of the Program Outcomes above<br />
  7. 7. Critical Thinking<br />Critical Thinking: <br />Case study on Katherine who struggles with depression<br />Course:<br />Maladaptive Behavior and Psychopathology PSY410<br />
  8. 8. Critical Thinking cont.<br /> Maladaptive Behavior and Psychopathology<br /> <br /> Course Project<br /> <br /> PSY410<br /> <br /> Submitted by: Charmaine Clark<br /> <br /> October 27, 2009<br /> <br /> <br />
  9. 9. Critical Thinking cont.<br />Katherine is diagnosed with Mood Disorder. One kind of mood disorder is called Depressive Disorder. This form of disorder reflects a sad and/or irritable mood exceeding normal sadness or grief. More specifically, the sadness of depression is characterized by a greater intensity and duration and by more severe symptoms and functional disabilities than is normal. Three of the most common types of depressive disorders:<br />Major depression is characterized by a combination of symptoms that last for at least two weeks in a row, including sad and/or irritable mood, that interfere with the ability to work, sleep, eat, and enjoy once-pleasurable activities.<br />Dysthymia is a less severe but usually more long-lasting type of depression compared to major depression. It involves long-term (chronic) symptoms that do not disable but yet prevent the affected person from functioning at "full steam" or from feeling good. Sometimes, people with Dysthymia also experience episodes of major depression.<br />Another type of depression is bipolar disorder, which encompasses a group of mood disorders that were formerly called manic-depressive illness or manic depression. These conditions show a particular pattern of inheritance. Not nearly as common as the other types of depressive disorders, bipolar disorders involve cycles of mood that include at least one episode of mania and may include episodes of depression as well<br /> Katherine shows many signs of depressive disorder, referring to major depression. According to the case notes, Katherine states she seek therapy because she feels sad more often, cries easily, have little interests in family and friends, no sexual desire and irritable. With Major depression there is no single cause Psychological, biological, and environmental factors may all contribute to its development. According to the DSM-IV-TR, Major depression can occur at any age and some people can go many years without any depressive symptoms (APA, 2000). Furthermore, the DSM-IV-TR states a number of individuals have pre-existing Dysthymia Disorder prior to the onset of Major Depressive Disorder (APA, 2000). For example, when Katherine came to her first session, she talked about having difficulty with her relationship with her family. Mainly directed at her parents and husband. Dysthymia Disorder is a mild but chronic form of depression. Dysthymia symptoms usually last for at least two years, and often much longer than that, especially when the condition starts in childhood. Although the symptoms of Dysthymia may be less intense than those of depression, Dysthymia can actually affect your life more seriously because it lasts so long. With Dysthymia, you may lose interest in normal daily activities, feel hopeless, lack productivity and have a low self-esteem. <br />
  10. 10. Critical Thinking Cont.<br /> One treatment option for Katherine would be Cognitive behavior therapy. CBT is an effective treatment for depression. The goal of CBT is to help the patient effect a change in their state of mind by teaching them how to look at life from a positive perspective and how to reward themselves for experiencing pleasure and accomplishment. Cognitive behavior therapy helps depressed people gain new insight, feel better, and improve their mood.<br /> Anti-depress antidepressant can help reduce suicide rates and mood swings. There are several options of medication Katherine could be described, such as Prozac. Antidepressants improve sleep and appetite, reduce anxiety, sharpen concentration, and restore energy levels. <br /> There is always ethical and cultural consideration in every case. However, during Katherine‘s assessment, she did mention any restrictions to religion or cultural beliefs. Katherine did mention she believes in God and had visions of God. As a counselor, respect for cultural beliefs should always be considered. The ethical concerns, religion and spirituality are oftentimes part of the client’s problem and they can also be a part of the client’s solution. Because spiritual and religious values can play a major part of the human life, spirituality values should be viewed as a potential resource in therapy (Corey, 2007). <br /> Katherine has much strength. She continues to work has a dental hygienist and maintains a relationship with her sister and several friends. Katherine has strong beliefs in God and attends church. Most of all, Katherine listen to the advice given in her sessions and attends all sessions. She shows interest in trying to work on changing her moods and loves her family.<br /> A childhood disorder Katherine suffers from is child sexual abuse. Sexual abuse of children refers to sexual behavior between a child and an adult or between two children when one of them is significantly older or uses coercion (Gorey, & Donald, 1997). Many survivors of child sexual abuse develop depression, inability to have productive relationships and substance abuse (Gory, & Donald, 1997). According to the DSM-IV-TR, women are at significantly greater risk than men to develop Major Depressive Episodes at some point during their lives (APA, 2000). Furthermore, significant proportion of women report s worsening of the symptoms of a Major Depressive episode several days before the onset of menses (APA, 2000). This disorder could lead to heart disease and other illnesses when a woman or man becomes older. <br />
  11. 11. Critical Thinking cont.<br />Major Depressive episode several days before the onset of menses (APA, 2000). This disorder could lead to heart disease and other illnesses when a woman or man becomes older. <br />Future recommendations for Katherine include;<br /><ul><li>Continue use of prescribed anti-depressants
  12. 12. Continue individual counseling
  13. 13. Marriage counseling / Family counseling
  14. 14. Join adult support group of sexual abused children
  15. 15. Join a community health center / Spa
  16. 16. Volunteer at local schools or community centers </li></li></ul><li>Critical Thinking cont.<br /> Reference<br /> <br /> <br />American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Washington, D.C., American Psychiatric Association, 2000<br />Gorey, K. and Donald Leslie. (1997). “The prevalence of child sexual abuse: Integrative review adjustment for potential response and measurement biases.” Child Abuse and Neglect. Vol. 21(4): 391-398<br /> <br /> <br />Weiss, E. L., Longhurst, J. G., Mazure, C. M. (1999). Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Risk Factor for Depression in Women: Psychosocial and Neurobiological Correlates. Am. J. Psychiatry 156: 816-828<br /> <br /> Retrieved October 27, 2009<br /> <br />
  17. 17. Research Skills<br /> <br /> <br /> The Impact of Media Violence on Youth<br /> <br /> Charmaine Clark<br /> <br /> Advance General Psychology PSY 492<br /> <br /> Argosy University<br />
  18. 18. Research Skills cont. <br /> On June 24, 2008, six teenagers from Long Island, NY, launched a two hour long crime spree in which they committed a violent mugging and several break-ins and thefts before finally being caught after a carjacking attempt (Crowley 2008). Police authorities reported the teenagers claimed the crime was committed to replicate the actions of NikoBelic, the thuggish protagonist from the new video game ‘‘Grand Theft Auto IV.’’ ((Anderson et al.2003; US Surgeon General 1972, 2001). According to the American Medical Association (AMA), violence in the mass media, especially television, has reached such a high level that poses a hazard to the health of this country’s people (AMA, 1996). Observational learning and imitation is the determining factors of human behavior at a younger age. Therefore, the younger the person is, the more likely he or she is to react to observed behavior by imitating. <br />Research studies<br /> According to an article in Journal of Youth and Adolescence ( 2009), 820 youth participants in a study were sampled from populations of high school students (n = 430; 51.6% female; M age = 16.83 years, SD = .71; 45.9% racial/ ethnic minority) and incarcerated delinquents (n = 390; 26.4% female; M age = 15.55 years, SD = 1.53; 45.1% racial/ethnic minority) ( Cheng et at, 2004 ) In addition, parents and educators also shared information about the participating youth. All participants answered questionnaires that reflected on what their view was on television, types of computer activities and video game preferences. The study was based on the relationship between violent media use and aggressive behavior. Using criterion scores developed through cross-informant modeling of data from self, parent/guardian, and teacher/staff reports, observed that childhood and adolescent violent media preferences contributed significantly to the prediction of violence and general aggression from cumulative risk totals (Bushman and Huesmann’s, 2006). The results of the study showed media violence along with family (domestic violence or physical abuse) and community violence, increase violent behavior overtime in youth (Bushman and Huesmann’s, 2006)<br /> A study, based on Bandura’s theory of social cognitive learning (2001), was conducted by Anderson and Bushman (2002a). The framework for the explanation of human aggression by using the General Aggression Model (GAM). The GAM relied on the arousal, short-term effect and cognitive components (Anderson & Bushman, 2002). The General Aggression Model accounts for the wide variety of effects seen in the media violence literature, including both short-term and long-terms effects on aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, on emotional desensitization to violence and subsequent declines in pro-social behavior, and on changes in the social environment that occur as the developing child becomes more habitually aggressive” (Anderson et al., 2007, p. 57).<br />
  19. 19. Research Skills cont.<br />Another longitudinal study was conducted by Huesmann et al. (2003) sustained that frequent consumption of media violence in childhood is a casual factor of later aggression (Huesman et al., 2008). The study assessed the following variables as effects of early exposure to media violence (three types of media): exposure to media violence, violence beliefs, students’ violence (violent behavior in school), and violent delinquency (Huesman et al., 2008.) Effects of the age (from 6 to 7 years old and older) at which children were exposed to horror/violence (H/V) films for the first time were hypothesized to confirm the cumulative nature of risks of media violence exposure (Huesman et al., 2008).<br />Recommendations <br /> There are many approaches to educating parents and educators on the impact of media violence on children. One approach is media literacy education. Researchers have shown that this approach aids students in developing critical thinking and viewing skills and a necessary foundation for healthy decision making (Fuller, Damico, & Rogers, 2004; Kater, Rohwer, & Londre, 2002). Media literacy education has been effective in many areas; such as helping youth evaluate and rethink glamorous lifestyles shown in the media and Cantor’s ( 2000) curriculum on violent behavior and what’s its like to be a victim of crime (Fuller, Damico, & Rogers, 2004; Kater, Rohwer, & Londre, 2002). Despite this sense of awareness, research has also indicated that some students do not think through the complexities of the relations between media messages and their possible influence on thoughts, attitudes, and behaviors (Fuller et al., 2008). <br />In addition, researchers have found that parental control over youth viewing can reduce violent confusion and promote awareness of media violence (Cantor, 2003).<br />Conclusion<br /> Television is a regular part of children’s lives, even before they learn to read. Children spend more hours in front of the television as they do in school or interacting with family (Macionis, 2006). For many years, parents and educators have been concern about the impact of media violence on children of all ages. The risk factors for aggressive behavior in childhood and adolescence are high risk factors and include, among others: exposure to violence and aggression in the community (Guerra et al. 2003; Schwartz and Proctor 2000). <br /> <br />
  20. 20. Research Skills cont.<br /> References<br />Anderson, C., Leonard, B., Edward, D., Huesmann, L., Johnson, D., Neil, M. (2003). The Influence of Media Violence on Youth. Psychological Science in the Public Interest: 2003-124; 3<br />Argosy University (2010) Research Methods. Library resource. Retrieved on June 6, 2010.<br />Boxer, P., Huesmann, L., Bushman, B., O’Brien, M., & Moceri, D. (2009). The role of Media violence. 20(3), 79-96. doi:10.1027/1864-1105.20.3.79. <br /> Cantor, J., & Wilson, B. (2003). Media and Violence: Intervention Strategies for Reducing Aggression. Media Psychology, 5(4), 363-403. doi: 10.1207/S1532785XMEP0504_03.<br />Cheng. T., Brenner, A., Wright, J. (2004). Children are Violent Television Viewing: Are Parents Monitoring? Pediatrics, 2004-07114:1<br />Hopf, W., Huber, G., & Weiß, R. (2008). Media violence and youth violence: A 2-year <br />Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(3), 417-428. doi: 10.1007/s10964-008-9335-2.<br /> Longitudinal study. Journal of Media Psychology: Theories, Methods, and Applications, <br /> media preference in cumulative developmental risk for violence and general aggression. <br />Strasburger, V., Wilson, B., & Jordan, A. (2009). Children, adolescents, and the media (2nd ed.). <br /> Thousand Oaks, CA US: Sage Publications, Inc. Retrieved from PsycINFO database.<br />Tomkins, A. & Mark, A (1994) Children and Violence. Behavioral Science & the Law. 1994-0112; 1<br />
  21. 21. Communication Skills<br /> Communication Skills<br /> Substance Abuse Treatment I PSY 482<br /> Presentation on Substance Abuse Treatment options<br />
  22. 22. Communication Skills<br /> Substance Abuse Treatment I<br /> PSY482<br /> Charmaine Clark<br />Residential and 12 Step Intervention <br />
  23. 23. Communication Skills cont. <br /> What is the process?<br />Upon admission, there is an extensive intake process and from that point on individuals then meet with their primary therapist who serves as a primary source of guidance and support throughout their treatment process. An extensive clinical assessment is then formulated and individualized treatment goals are developed. For individuals needing drug detoxthey meet with expert addictionologists in the treatment field to ensure a safe, medically supervised detox during their stay. Treatment center recognizes the distinct needs of those in this population and treats them accordingly.<br />
  24. 24. Communication Skills cont.<br /> What is Sequential Residential and 12 Step Intervention<br />Sequential residential treatment is behavior techniques for improving treatment participation through therapeutic engagement strategies, emotional self management and communication skills, just to name a few.<br />12 Step program is a brief, structured, and manual-driven approach to facilitating early recovery from alcohol abuse, alcoholism, and other drug abuse and addiction problems. The program is implemented with individual clients over 12 to 15 sessions. The intervention is based on the behavioral, spiritual, and cognitive principles of 12-step fellowships such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA). <br />
  25. 25. Communication Skills cont.<br />What is the cost and who can attend?<br />Membership in twelve step groups is free and no fees need ever be donated to the group in exchange for participation. However, as in the case of collection in a church setting, donations are encouraged. Anyone can attend who has problems with Alcohol, drugs and other addictions that hinder their lives. <br />In the treatment facilities, there are different level of care. There are facilities in place for women, men, sex addict, gay and lesbian, as well as individuals diagnosed with HIV / AIDS. Treatment centers are paid through private sectors, donations and government funds. <br />What other services offered through Sequential residential and 12 step intervention programs?<br />Other services offered during treatment include:<br /><ul><li>Individual counseling
  26. 26. Group counseling
  27. 27. Job training
  28. 28. Vocational and Community involvement
  29. 29. Mediation
  30. 30. Massages
  31. 31. Family night
  32. 32. Life skills
  33. 33. Marriage counseling / family counseling</li></li></ul><li>Communication Skills cont.<br /> What happens when I complete the program?<br />Once you have completed your therapy, you will maintain a therapeutic relationship with your assigned clinician, but the emphasis will be on relapse prevention, goal orientation, and motivation to move on with your new found sobriety. You will also gradually return to your regular life: family, school, work. You will be supplied with emergency hotline numbers and numbers of peers and counselors. Also you will have access to community centers who have support groups as well as individual counseling<br /> Is this right for me? Choosing the right rehab center is vital. It can mean the difference between frustration and finally breaking free - and getting back your life. The first step toward recovery is making the first step to quitting. <br />
  34. 34. Ethics and Diversity Awareness<br /> Substance Abuse Treatment II<br /> <br /> Psy483<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Why be a Substance Abuse Counselor<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> Charmaine Clark<br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> <br /> December 19, 2009<br />
  35. 35. Ethics and Diversity Awareness cont.<br /> Individuals interested and studying Substance Abuse Counseling should be aware of the basic knowledge, skills, and attitude expected from addiction counselors (Argosy, 2009). The core competencies for counselors understand addiction, treatment knowledge, application to practice, professional readiness and introduction and over view to Chemical Dependence (Argosy, 2009). For example, understanding addiction is having a basic knowledge of substance abuse and its impact on those who use substance (Argosy, 2009). <br /> There are other informational resources available to substance abuse counselors, such as Regional agencies and professional addiction related organizations that can be an enhancement in their career. With Regional abuse agencies, Regional Alcohol and Drug Awareness Resource Network Center (RADAR) gather, share and exchange information responding to both the immediate and long term substance abuse prevention needs of the communities (Argosy, 2009). In addition, the professional addiction organizations include the American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry, American Council on Alcoholism and National Association of Addiction Treatment Providers (Argosy, 2009).<br /> One of most important aspects of counseling I would like to be more familiar with is professional Code of Ethics. The ATTC National Curriculum Committee defined the competencies essential to the effective practice of counseling for psychoactive substance use disorders (Argosy, 2009). The American Psychological Association (APA) provides guidelines for all counselors to follow. <br />The guidelines consist of:<br /><ul><li>For providers of psychological services to ethnic, linguistic and culturally diverse populations ( APA, 1993)
  36. 36. For providers with lesbian, gay and bisexual clients ( APA, 2000)
  37. 37. On multicultural education, training, research, practice and organizational change for psychologist ( APA, 2003)</li></ul>I would need to be aware of my own ethical awareness and problem solving skills which will determine how I translate these guidelines into professional behavior (Corey, Corey & Callahan, 2007). <br />
  38. 38. Ethics and awareness cont.<br />Certification and licensure as an addiction professional means that a minimum level of competence that sets a standard for qualified professionals has been established (Argosy, 2009). To start a career as an Alcohol Counselor, you'll need at least an associate's or bachelor's degree in a field like substance abuse counseling or social work (ALA, 2003). Depending on the type of facility and capacity in which you'll be working, the educational requirements to work as an Alcohol Counselor vary. Generally, an associate's or bachelor's degree and relevant work experience in a field like substance abuse counseling, social and behavior science or social work will qualify you to work in Alcohol Counseling (ALA, 2003). The median annual earnings in 2006 for substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors were $34,040 (BLS, 2006).<br /> Substance abuse counseling has help Steve in many ways. Counseling has helped by identifying behavior and problems related to his addiction. Counseling has assist Steve in developing a personalized recovery plan to establish healthy behaviors and provide coping strategies. In addition to access to programs and community outreach that aim at preventing addiction and educating the public. Nevertheless, counseling has brought information and new beginnings to Steve and his family for a stronger relationship and understanding.<br /> <br /> References<br />Argosy University Online (2009) Substance Abuse Treatment II. Lecture notes. Retrieved December 19, 2009<br />American Library Association (2003) Alcohol Counseling: Job duties and Requirements. Retrieved December 19, 2009.<br />Corey, G, Corey, M & Callahan, P. (2007) Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions. Thomson Higher Education. Belmont, CA. Pg. 5<br />Bureau of Labor Statistics (2006) Retrieved December 19, 2009.<br /> <br /> <br /> <br />
  39. 39. Knowledge of Foundation of the Field<br /> Knowledge of Foundation of the field<br /> Decision Making in Groups<br /> Industrial/Organizational Psychology<br /> PSY 320 <br /> Charmaine Clark<br />
  40. 40. Knowledge of Foundation of the Field cont.<br /> In social loafing, some group members take advantage of others by decreasing their own contributions to group work (Argosy, 2009) this is an example of an individual or two continue to be more laid back and non-social during a project.<br />With free riding, some group members contribute so little effort and usually everyone in the group will have an unfair result. For example, an individual in the group has a part in the project and do not complete it. The group project is based on a whole and any missing piece will bring the group down.<br />The sucker effect is the tendency to withhold as a means of restoring equality and avoiding being taken advantage of that occurs when one perceives that he or she is contributing more to a task than others (Stangor, 2004) this is an example of an individual that has leadership role and expects others in the group to comply. However, when the means are not met, he or she may withhold information from the group as sabotage or to get even.<br />Process loss is little to no group interaction which leads to bad decision making. According to the lecture notes, process loss is the difference between what a group actually produces and what it should produce based on the number of individuals in that group. For example, some individuals work better outside the group. If the individual feels stress or do not get alone with other group members, he or she will give less.<br />A group is two or more individuals interacting in a social setting or place of employment. According to the lecture notes, there are two characteristics in all groups, group norms and group roles( Argosy, 2009) With group roles, it is important that the role an individual has in the group, will effect the productivity in the organization. For example, if your role in the group is supervisor, picking and choosing your favorite co-worker can cause problems in the group. Someone may feel left out and his or her work performance can begin to slow down. This affects the group because everyone is accountable for the outcome. In conclusion, with group norms, expectations group members share about appropriate and inappropriate values, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors (Argosy, 2009). For example, when a project needs to be complete, many in the group may feel everyone should be on time and put in on the project. Usually, when you have an individual who rather talk on the phone or call off work a lot, the group will complain and make assumption of the slacker. <br /> <br /> <br /> <br />
  41. 41. Knowledge of Foundation of the Field cont.<br />To ensure brainstorming is as effective all members in the group put all of their ideas together to solve a problem. Some suggestions include:<br />Have someone in the group write down thoughts of the group. <br />Do not to be judgmental. (There are no bad ideas in the group)<br />Create a visual story ( use flip charts, chalk board) of all ideas<br />Encourage all members to participate<br />Set the meeting in a relation setting<br />Lastly, be creative by using posits with neon colors or do a group game before starting the meeting (word or number games).<br /> References<br /> <br />Argosy University Online (2009) Lecture notes. Industrial/Organizational Psychology. Retrieved August 14, 2009<br />Stangor, C (2004) Social Groups in Action and Interaction. Psychology Press. New York, New York. Pg. 224<br />
  42. 42. Knowledge of Applied Psychology<br /> Knowledge of Applied Psychology<br /> The most effective data used in my profession<br />Psychological Statistics <br /> PSY 210<br /> Visually Reported Data<br />Instructor Jay Greiner<br />  Charmaine Clark<br />  <br />March 22, 2010<br /> <br />
  43. 43. Knowledge of Applied Psychology<br />Measurement or numerical data is divided into four types: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio (Argosy, 2010). The most effective type of data used for my profession is nominal measurement. Nominal measurement is the mathematical values are assigned to that which is being assessed simply by arbitrarily assigning numerical values to a characteristic, event, occasion, or phenomenon (Argosy, 2010). For example, the head start programs are designed to help low income children get an early head start in education. Children ages three to five years of age, no matter race or religion has an opportunity to be in the program. Using the nominal measurement, we can compute differences in number of African American, white or Hispanic children, and income levels of the family and geographical areas of need. For example, one chart has the race of the children enrolled in the program. We have a total of 2,548 children enrolled. Out of the total, 1,600 children are African American. However, the chart also shows that 98 children from the number are African American Somali children. Without the visual chart, it would be hard to determine which children are American born or from another country. When doing a yearly report on the number of children head start serves, visual graphs are easier to refer to. According to the lecture notes, visually presented information can also be considered as the roadmap to what has happened or lays ahead (Argosy, 2010). Nominal measurement is also used when the organization use parent surveys results for parent meetings. For example, parents of the program are asked what their interests are and what they would like to discuss during parent meetings. With the information collected, we can make a graph of topics and know the number of request. All the information collected is used for future statistics and help the organization pin point areas of concerns or what worked in that particular area. However, visually reported data results in any arena have two primary drawbacks, namely, the presenter and the lack of data sophistication being presented (Argosy, 2010). For example, our graphs are presented in the early part of the year. Toward the end of the year, the information is not accurate due to the children leaving the program or the parent’s income changed. <br />Regardless of the type of chart or graph you use to illuminate or express a concept or idea, they all have one thing in common; namely, to communicate, via picture, what is being studied or what is happening ( Argosy, 2010).<br />Reference<br />Argosy University Online (2010) Psychological Statistics. Lecture notes. Retrieved March 22, 2010.<br />
  44. 44. Interpersonal Effectiveness<br />When I first began college in 2005, I studied Early Childhood Development Before I gave myself a chance; I began to struggle from anxiety and lack of confidence. As the years progressed and my grades were better, I managed to make the Dean list for several quarters. That’s when I decided it was time for a more challenging major. I changed my major to Psychology.<br />Changing to Psychology meant helping many families, including my family, with mental, social and psychological issues. I choose Psychology related to substance abuse because I have many substance abuse problems within my family. Taking on the psychological aspects of substance abuse was challenging because I saw many characteristics in my development as a student and the case studies I worked on in the classes. <br />Psychology gave me insights on critical thinking and ways to counsel individuals dealing with substance abuse problems. I also learned to be very open- minded to different cultures and gender approaches when dealing with diverse groups. However, I lacked focused many times when it came to remembering psychological terms.<br />Writing a research paper was also a challenge for me. I struggled with ways to test my hypothesis. I wrote a research paper on the impact of Media Violence on Youth. This paper meant a lot to me because I lost a family member to violence due to bullying and acting out a violent character on a movie. I found many different prospective on violence and the media, but violence continues to haunt many youth in different forms. <br />Math continues to be one of my weakest points in my studies. I recently took general education statistics and psychological statistics together. I found that statistics was complicated and hard to follow. However, I managed to apply the statistics I learned from the math course to my research paper in advance general psychology course. I did not give myself a chance to learn about statistics. <br />Overall, I have gained more knowledge about psychology in ways I thought I would fail. I use the information gained to complete task in my social and work life. I have a better understanding of how the cognitive and social aspect of psychology work as it relates to people I serve daily. <br />
  45. 45. My Future in Learning<br />My mother and father were teenagers when I was born. I learned to walk and talk from the molding of my uncles and aunts. My mother and father both have an eight grade education and substance abuse issues. My maternal grandmother also dropped out of school at a young age. I grew up with my aunts and uncles, who were several years older than I. I began to learn how to do domestic things (cooking, cleaning and styling hair) at age seven. My grandmother was my primary parent and she believed the only place for women is in the house caring for her children and husband. I thought this was true for many years until I became a mother and wife. <br />At age thirty-five I realized that I had a large family and I need more money to take care of them and myself. Although my husband worked, having an education beyond high school became a reality to me. I applied for two year community college program then later attended Argosy University for a BA in Psychology.<br />There are three major concepts I continue to work on as a lifelong learner;<br />Discipline: Being an online student takes commitment and discipline. I struggled with getting assignments completed on time and reading assignments. This was due to lack of concentration and focusing on my studies. To help with discipline issues, I would spend time alone when my children and husband were out of the house, and read my assignments and worked on any assignments due that week. I continued to lack on time on occasions, but eventually made more progress toward completing task.<br />Time management: I struggle also with time management. I would forget the dates of many assignments and found myself doubling up. I created a calendar that displayed hours to help focus on how long it would take to complete an assignment. I am still learning how to manage my time and make a daily schedule to complete task<br />Self motivation: My motivation comes from my determination to make a change in my life. I can speak on self –motivation all day but struggled to make it work for myself. I did not believe I could make it this far in college until I realize, many of the concepts I learned in Psychology, helped me help a family change the way they interacted with their children and change their substance abuse habits. <br />Being a lifelong learner is a journey that leads me to prosperity and a pathway to follow my dreams. <br />
  46. 46. Contact Me<br />Thank you for viewing my ePortfolio.<br />For further information, please contact me at the e-mail address below. <br /><br />