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Chapter 9 modals part 1


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Chapter 9 modals part 1

  1. 1. CHAPTER 9 MODALS Part 1 By: Cristina Avalos D.
  2. 2. MODAL AUXILIARIES ARE USE TO EXPRESS: <ul><li>Obligation /Necessity </li></ul><ul><li>Advice/ Suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Permission / Request </li></ul><ul><li>Refusal </li></ul><ul><li>Willigness </li></ul><ul><li>Probability </li></ul>
  3. 3. Obligation/Necessity <ul><li>Must </li></ul><ul><li>Have to </li></ul><ul><li>Have got to </li></ul><ul><li>Past form: Had to ( when it refers to an idea of past necessity) </li></ul><ul><li>Must it’s stronger than have to and indicates urgence or stress importance </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>You must stay in bed until I return </li></ul><ul><li>I have to be home by eight </li></ul><ul><li>I have got to go now (I gotta go now) </li></ul><ul><li>I had to study last night </li></ul>
  4. 4. Lack of necessity: <ul><li>We use don’t have to to express that something is not really necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>You don’t have to do everything for her </li></ul><ul><li>We don’t have to atttend classes </li></ul>
  5. 5. Prohibition or Obligation: <ul><li>We also use must to express obligation or prohibition. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Form: must not or musn’t </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>You must be 18 to drive </li></ul><ul><li>You musn’t do anything like this again </li></ul><ul><li>You must not tell anyone my secret </li></ul>
  6. 6. Advice or Suggestions <ul><li>Should (Ought to) </li></ul><ul><li>Had better </li></ul><ul><li>Should and Ought to have the same meaning: they express advisability </li></ul><ul><li>Had better is close to should and ought to but the meaning is stronger. Had better usually implies a warning or a threat of possible bad consequences </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>You look sick, you should go to the doctor </li></ul><ul><li>You ought to call the police </li></ul><ul><li>You should pass the exam easily. You’ve worked really hard </li></ul><ul><li>You had better not be late </li></ul>
  8. 8. Past form of should, ought to and had better Should: Should + have + past participle Ought to: Ought to + have + past participle Had better: Had better + have + past participle
  9. 9. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>I should have studied last night ( means that studying was a good idea but I didn’t do it. So, I made a mistake) </li></ul><ul><li>I ought to have called the police (but I didn’t do it so, now I regret) </li></ul><ul><li>He had better have taken care of it </li></ul>
  10. 10. Expectations <ul><li>Be supposed to </li></ul><ul><li>It is use to express the idea that someone expects something to happen, it also expresses expectations about scheduled events or behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>The game is supposed to begin at 10:00 </li></ul><ul><li>I am supposed to go to the meeting </li></ul><ul><li>The children are supposed to put away their toys before they go to bed </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Past form: </li></ul><ul><li>Was / were supposed to </li></ul><ul><li>It is use to express unfulfilled expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>John was supposed to call me yesterday. I wonder why he didn’t. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Permission or Request <ul><li>May/ Might </li></ul><ul><li>Can </li></ul><ul><li>Could </li></ul><ul><li>Would you mind </li></ul><ul><li>Will </li></ul><ul><li>Would </li></ul>
  13. 13. Polite requests <ul><li>We use: </li></ul><ul><li>May I / Might I </li></ul><ul><li>Could I </li></ul><ul><li>Can I </li></ul><ul><li>Would you mind </li></ul><ul><li>Would ( it is used for invitations/ to be polite or to express wishes) </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>May/ Might I ask you a question ? </li></ul><ul><li>He could be working in the library </li></ul><ul><li>Can you help me with this exercise please ? </li></ul><ul><li>Would you pass the salt? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you speak louder? </li></ul><ul><li>Would you mind closing the window? </li></ul><ul><li>Would you like a cup of coffee? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Refusal and Willingness <ul><li>To express Refusal (when someone or something refuses to do an action) we use: </li></ul><ul><li>Won’t </li></ul><ul><li>To express Willingness( a person wants or has the intention to do something) we use: </li></ul><ul><li>Will </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>She won’t get up </li></ul><ul><li>Will you spend Christmas with us? </li></ul><ul><li>Will you come to my party? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Probability <ul><li>To express probability we also use: </li></ul><ul><li>Will: To predict a future action </li></ul><ul><li>I will see you later! </li></ul><ul><li>Must: What we infer to be the most logical interpretation for a situation </li></ul><ul><li>He didn’t come to classes, he must be sick </li></ul><ul><li>Negative form of must: </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t: It is use ONLY TO EXPRESS PROBABILITY </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Should: What may reasonably be expected to happen ( If everything has gone according to the plan ) </li></ul><ul><li>Our guests should be here soon </li></ul><ul><li>Might-May-Could: The possibility that an event will happen or is happening </li></ul><ul><li>We might go to Hawaii for our honeymoon </li></ul>
  18. 18. Contractions <ul><li>Should + have: Shoulda </li></ul><ul><li>Could + have: Coulda </li></ul><ul><li>Must + have: Musta </li></ul><ul><li>May + have: Maya </li></ul><ul><li>Might + have: Mighta </li></ul>