By: Marveluz LansangCharlotte Pilande and Dalit Lobrin
Values are the expressions of the ultimateends, goals, or purposes of social action. Theyare society’s moral imperatives that deal withwhat ought to be, and are therefore considereddesirable and important by the members ofsociety. In contrast to social norms, values aregeneral in nature (Popenoe 1947). Valuesinfluence a person’s behavior towards a largeclass of objects or person’s although they are notrelated to any specific object, person, or group(Banks and Clegg 1973:445-446).
“Not only material goods but also ideals andconcepts are values, such as truth, honesty andjustice. For instance, if truth is a value for us, itcommands n us an inner commitment which inturn translates itself into our daily speech andaction. Truth is good and desirable: therefore, itinfluences our attitude and behavior.” On the other hand, The Southeast AsianResearch Advisory Group (1987:9) defined vauesas standards and principles for judging what iscorrect or incorrect behavior, what is worthattaining or not attaining, what is desirable orundesirable.
These values may be terminal (end state)or instrumental (mode of behavior).Human Behavior is judge by the standards of good andbad. Values cannot be readily identified sincethey are abstractions from reality. One has todeduce these values from social action.
To identify the values operative in a givensociety, one may apply the four-fold test of RobinWilliams(1970:448).Extensiveness- when the value is recognized by arepresentative number of people within the society.Duration- when the value has been shared andpracticed in common for some time;Intensity- when the value involves the emotions andis taken seriously and sought after by many; andPrestige of its carrier- when the value providesready-made means for judging social worth of personsor groups who share or practice it.
The Filipinos of the last quarter of the 20th century arethe sum total of the social strains and cultural elements that areAeta, Indonesian, Malaysian, Hindu, Arabian, Chinese, Spanish,Americans; in short, the Filipinos are cosmopolitan in nature.They are both oriental and occidental. From the early trade and commerce andintermarriages between our Filipino ancestors and Chinese andHindu merchants, as well as the wave of settlements of otherAsian neighbors into the country, the oriental side of the Filipinohas evolved. Interpersonal and social relationships revolvearound “blood ties”, marriage, and ritual kinship.
Spanish and American culture compose the Filipino’soccidentalism . Spain introduced Roman Catholicism, theencomienda, galleon trade, fiesta, parochial school, municipalbuilding, village plaza and compadre system. Spainemphasize the spiritual aspects of life and the preparation forlife after death. This has set the foundation for thecontemporary Filipino attitude towards devorce, birth controllegislation, fiesta and ceremony, gambling along withinvolvement in charitable activities and the faithfulattendance of mass (anis 1964:20). The compadre system initiated the Filipino into thepractice of extended families and this has serve to strengthenthe notorious practice of nepotism and favoritism in the socialspheres. On the other hand, oppressive policies of the Spanishcolonizers, such as forced labor to build their ships andchurches, developed in the Filipino a hatred for manual labor.
The Americanization of the Filipino consisted mainly ofthe introduction of democratic system of government. TheAmericans also popularized education as the most essentialchannel for social mobility and introduced the English languageas the medium of instruction in the school system which theyestablished in the Philippines. The Americans further infusednew ideals pertaining to the family, economy, government,education, religion, recreation, and health and welfare. Finally,the Americans also introduced into the Filipino way of life thevalues of materialism and consumerism. In recent years, the Filipino has been exposed to a widevariety of and often conflicting cultural elements from masseducation, mass media, educational, exchange programs,economic and diplomatic exchange missions, religious pilgrimagesand missionary work, socio-economic developmental programs,multinational business and industrial establishments, increasedoverseas employment and the balikbayan program.
The program draws inspiration from the 1986 EDSARevolution and the 1987 Philippines Constitution with its visionof “a just and humane society” calling for a shared culture andcommonly held values, such as “truth, justice, freedom, love,equality and peace”. In all these situations, Filipino have displayedremarkable adaptability, resulting in a “many-sided” culturalheritage, for whatever elements in Filipino culture wereborrowed had been “Filipinized” and in the process hadbecome distinctly Filipino(Corpuz 1965:5-6) it has also resultedin a dichotomous outlook-oriental and occidental. They arepulled in a opposite directions by non-rationalism andrationalism, by personalism and impersonalism, byparticularism and universalism, by nationalism andinternationalism.
The philosophy of life implied in non-rationalismrevolves around the idea that man has to adapt himself tonature and to forces outside of himself. Non-rationalisminvolves an uncritical acceptance, reverence, and protectionof traditions and rituals. Rationalism, involves a belief that by systematicplanning, studying, and training, one can actively control andmanipulate his or her destiny. The rational person is future-oriented rather than present or past-oriented. His or herthoughts and actions are characteristically scientific-oriented,continuously guided by curiosity, observation andexperimentation. He or she gives high priority to self-expression and creativity over group conformity and security.
Filipinos have been influenced by western rationalism,although they are still fundamentally non-rational. They stillview the world as one over which they have little or no control;success or failure is largely dependent upon supernatural beingor spirits. This is revealed in the expression “bahala na.”Filipinos often say this expression when about to perform aparticular task which may be difficult to accomplish, given acertain set of circumstances. However, the “bahala na”expression also underlies the Filipinos’ determination, courage,fortitude, and willingness to face danger. It is the reason fortheir readiness to accept and bear the consequences ofdifficulties in life-the source of their patience or tiyaga. TheFilipino’s “bahala na” mentality has led to a lack of foresight,contentment with the past, indolence, and a lack of initiative,self-reliance or pioneering spirit.
They are regarded as segurista that is, they demand ademonstration of assured success. They are imitative(gaya-gaya) and such imitativeness gives rise to what AlfredoRoces(1964:4) identified as emphasis in façade, palabas,pakitang-tao, pagyayabang. The “bahala na” mentality hasalso led to lack of punctuality, vulnerability to awa,dependence on the espiritista, the mangkukulam or witch. Other Filipino expressions of this orientalism are foundin phrases such as “itinalagang Diyos,” “iginuhit ng tadhana,”“gulong ng palad”(life has its ups and downs, or life is like awheel of fortune), “malas”(badluck), and “napasubo”(forcedinto something). Filipino’s are also inclined to status-oriented behavior,hiya(shame), utang na loob(debt of gratitude), amorpropio(self-steem), and SIR identified by Fr. Lynch(1962:82-89)as the desire for smooth interpersonal relations.
Felipe Landa Jocano(1965:32-56) and Robert Fox(1956) revealthat child-rearing practices emphasize obedienceto elders.Fr.Bulatao(1962:32-44) also states that the Filipino isauthoritarian, even dictatorial, when given power and makesknown to everyone the fact that he is boss. Ruben SantosCuyugan(1961:9-13) points to the predominance of paternalismin formal organizations. Filipinos are also shame-oriented, that is, their majorconcern is social approval, acceptance by a group, andbelonging to a group. Their behavior is generally dependent onwhat others will think, say or do. Hiya still controls much of theFilipino’s behavior. Amor propio is high self-esteem and is shown in thesensitivity of a person to hurt feelings and insults, real orimagined. This manifested in hiya, utang na loob, and SIR.
Persons resort to SIR patterns, such as the use of politelanguage, soft voice, gentle manner, and indirect approacheslike employing intermediaries, and euphemisms and ambiguousexpressions, all of which are intended to avoid directness orfrankness. Pakikisama is good public relations or the avoidanceof open disagreement or conflict with others. Utang na loobrefers to a debt of gratitude for a favor or help extended to aperson which is impossible to quantity. Forms of amor propio are behavior patterns such ashele-hele bago quire or pakipot, which requires that a personinitially refuse an offer even if he or she is subjected to moreprodding and; delicadesa, which means conformity with theethical practices or expectations of the group. Fr. Bulatao(1962:32-44) also believes that the training inthe Filipino female. This results in a double standard of moralityand the consensus that a woman’s principal duty is attending tothe home.
Personalism attaches major importance topersonal factor which guaranties intimacy, warmthand security of kinship, and friendship in getting thingsdone. Impersonalism refers to the tendency toeliminate the influence of friendship or kinship inworking situations. Behavior is depersonalized,standarized, or institutionalized. Santos Cuyugan(1961:124-125) says that manyFilipinos are still personalistic in spite of the rise ofimpersonalism in the urban areas. This is evident in thefrequent charges of nepotism, favoritism, andparticularism hurled against people in government.
Fr. Bulatao has observed the deterring effect ofpersonalism on the economic, social, and political growth ofPhilippine society. He believes that the Filipino way of doingthings is centered too much in personalities. Filipinos persist insettling matters in a roundabout way. They resort topakiusap, areglo, and lakad which weakens the merit systemin employment. Where a person’s concern is centered on sub-groupsmade up of relatives, friends, colleagues, associates, religiousaffiliates or members of his or her ethnic regional group inthe larger society to which he or she belongs, that individualis particularistic. When one’s main concern is theadvancement of collective or national good, he or she isuniversalistic.
Nationalism is the advocacy of making ones’ own nationdistinct and separate from others in intellectual, social, cultural,economic, political, and moral matters. It is the feeling ofoneness among the nationals who seek to establish the identityand the good of the nation in these matters. Nationalism is aphilosophy or a doctrine of what a country is, what its goals are,and how it is to achieve these goals. Nationalism can be a factor for either evil or good. Ifcarried to its extreme, it may take the form of ethnocentrism, orracism, or of xenophobia. As a sentiment, nationalism has either strongly swept nordeeply penetrated the entire nation. In fact, as some observerssay, the Philippines suffers from “national amnesia” and“colonial mentality”. Filipinos have a strong preference forimported goods and easily adapt themselves to foreign ideasand ways.
Awareness and understanding of contemporary valuesin society will put us in a better position to determine what wegain or lose in a predominantly Gemeinschaft societycharacterized by intimate, informal, reciprocal, and war socialand interpersonal relations stemming fro non-rationalism,personalism, and particularism, or in a predominantlyGesselschaft society characterized by anonymity, formality,contractualism, and coldness arising from rationalism,impersonalism, and universalism. In 1986, the department of Education, Culture andSports embarked on a Values Education Framework to provideand promote values education at all levels of the educationalsystem. Its goal is the development of the human personcommitted to the building of a “just a humane society” and anindependent and democratic nation.
Proper implementation of the program thatwill develop Filipinos who:1. are self-actualized, integrally developed human beingsimbued with a sense of human dignity;2. are social beings with a sense of responsibility for theircommunity and environment;3. are productive persons who contribute to the economicsecurity and development of the family and the nation;4. as citizens, have a deep sense of nationalism, and arecommitted to the progress of the nation as well as of theentire world community through global solidarity; and5. Manifest in actual life an abiding faith in God as areflection of his or her spiritual being.
Values education, pursued at the national,regional, local, and institution levels, areguided by the ff. general principles:1. it must be oriented toward the total person of the learner-mind, heart and entire being.2. it must take into consideration the unique role of thefamily in one’s personal development and integration intosociety and the nation.3. in the school context, more important than lessons plansand listed values are the teachers themselves who have theproper sense of values, awareness of their inner worth, andutmost respect for the person of the other.
The DECS framework should be of help in these task.The DECS framework ay also serve as a frame of referencein the reformation and revision of operative Filipino values.For instance, against the background of the framework,pakikisama should be seen as something to be prized.Similarly, utang na loob, should have wider application insociety, so that it can propel other values such as concern forthe common good and social justice.The Human Person The Values Education Program Framework is basedon rational under-standing, that is to say, a philosophy ofthe human person. It may be reconstructed from thevarious statements of the Constitution and expressed in thefollowing manner.
The human person is the subject of education. The human person is multi-dimensional. The human person is not just body and souljuxtaposed or mixed like oil and water but is anembodied spirit. Hence, his of her physical, intellectual,moral and spiritual well-being is recognized by theState. As a physical being, the human being has materialneeds. The human person is inevitably social. He or she belongs to a family, that basic unit ofsociety or, in the words of the Constitution, “thefoundation of the nation”, as well as to a wider andmore complex society of men and women. He or she is also economic. Lastly, the human being is political.
On the basis of the foregoing philosophy ofthe human person, the supreme and overarchingvalue that characterizes education is humandignity: the human person is of infinite value.As physical(made of matter),As spiritual(capable of higher concerns and ofrising above the material)As intellectual(gifted with mind, the faculty ofknowing)As moral(endowed with the faculty of freelychoosing and loving)
The following are values pertaining to theperson as self. These values are actualized insociety.1.Health2.Truth3.Love4.Spirituality5.Social responsibility6.Economic efficiency7.Nationalism8.Global solidarityAs a social being(living in a community)As economic(bound to concerns of livelihood)As political(member of the nation)
1. Health implies physical fitness and cleanliness.2. Truth implies the tireless quest for knowledge in all its forms.3. The moral nature of the human being places primacy in the value of love.4. Human existence5. Social responsibility6. Economic efficiency is achieved by people through work.7. The spirit of nationalism and patriotism means love of country. Its people has a distinct political unit bound by a common history(the past), committed to a common cause(the present), and sharing a common destiny(the future).
Translating the Values Education Frameworkinto Programs The foregoing values education framework providesthe parameters for the development of programs at thenational, regional, division, district, and school levels. Someguidelines at the policy and implementation levels are offeredhere:1. Establish school-community linkages and networks.2. Maximize the use of community, human, and material resources.3. Consolidate efforts of both government and non- government agencies and institutions for the purpose of minimizing costs and maximizing results.