Myths and rituals charlotte&chloe


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Myths and rituals charlotte&chloe

  1. 1. Myths and Rituals Consumer Behavior MKTG 6150 Chloé Agniel & Charlotte Cartier September 26th, 2013
  2. 2. Introduction • Importance of culture on consumer behavior • Myths and Rituals are cultural elements • How myths and rituals influence postmodern consumer behavior and how the brands use them in their business strategy?
  3. 3. What is a myth ? • Story with symbolic elements that represent the shared emotions and ideals of a culture • All cultures have their myths : legends, religions, creation of world, Greek and Roman mythology… • Passed by oral communication (Word of Mouth) Sources :
  4. 4. What is a myth ? • Good VS Evil • Teach a moral lesson: showing people how to behave • Enable people to understand their world • The functions are: The metaphysical (religious)  Sociological (maintenance of the established order)  Cosmological (image of the universe)  Psychological (key points in our lives). Sources :
  5. 5. What modern myths do you know ?
  6. 6. Myths and consumer behaviour • Myths influence consumer behavior (in movies, advertising…) Part of culture and identity • Consumers look for stories, they need experiences and some magic in their life Storytelling  article in Adweek. Story more important that content Sources : Blog Branding Strategy : How to create a word of mouth 152534
  7. 7. • Brands use myths and symbols in advertising campaigns (Adam and Eve, Remus and Romulus…) Doritos • Brands use mythical characters (gods, angels…) Nike Just Do It How brands use myths
  8. 8. Example : End of the world 2012
  9. 9. Example : End of the world 2012 •  End of the World  Noah’s Ark
  10. 10. Brands create myths to share experiences with their consumers and to make their product sacred. • Apple and Steve Jobs became a myth • Coca Cola and the secret recipe Article in Branding Magazine recipe-revealed/ How brands create myths
  11. 11. • Risk of disappointment Example of the eternal youth • Sometimes, a gap between myth and reality Example of Nike Limits to the use of myths
  12. 12. What is a ritual ? • “The term ritual refers to a type of expressive, symbolic activity constructed of multiple behaviors that occur in a fixed, episodic sequence and that tend to be repeated over time “ Source : The Ritual Dimension of Consumer Behavior D.W Rook
  13. 13. What is a ritual ? • Source : of-mouth-25/
  14. 14. Typology of ritual experience Source : The Ritual Dimension of Consumer Behavior D.W Rook Primary behavior source Ritual type Examples Cosmology Religious Magic Aesthetic Baptism, meditation, mass « Healing », gambling Performing arts Cultural values Rites of passage Cultural Graduation, marriage Festivals, Valentine’s Day, Super Bowl, Ground Hog Day Group learning Civic Small group Family Memorial Day parade, elections, trials Panacake Day, fraternity initiation, business negotiations, office luncheons Mealtime, bedtime, birthday and holiday celebrations Individual aims and emotions Personal Grooming, household rituals Biology Animal Greeting, mating
  15. 15. What rituals do you have ?
  16. 16. Different types of rituals • Gift-giving rituals • Grooming rituals • Holiday rituals • Rites of passage Source : Interpretive Consumer Research, McCracken 1988
  17. 17. Gift-giving rituals • The ritual of exchange is characterized by the choice and the offering of an object (present) by an individual and its acceptance by another one. • 3 different phases : • Gestation • Presentation • Reformulation • Gift giving is a form of: • Economic exchange • Symbolic exchange • Social expression • Every culture prescribes certain occasions and ceremonies for giving gifts Source : Contemporary Consumption Rituals, Sherry 1983
  18. 18. Grooming rituals • All consumers have private grooming rituals • Sequences of behaviors whose aim is to transition from private to public self (or back again) • Work/leisure personal rituals • Beauty rituals reflect transformation from natural state to social world
  19. 19. Before and after phenomenon
  20. 20. Holiday rituals • Most holidays are based on a myth with a character at center of story • Ritual artifacts and scripts • Businesses invent new occasions to capitalize on need for cards/ritual artifacts • Retailers elevate minor holidays to major ones to provide merchandising opportunities
  21. 21. Rites of passage • Special times marked by a change in social status • Three phases: • Separation • Liminality • Aggregation • Practices vary across cultures but are rich in symbolic value
  22. 22. What brands do you associate with this particular ritual ? Rituals Brands Having a shower ? Morning coffee ? Brushing your teeth ? Valentine’s day ? Easter ? Drinking beers with friends ? Family time ?
  23. 23. Brands  Rituals ? ? ?
  24. 24. Rituals and brands • Ritual artifacts • Expand the way the public receives their product • Attachment to the brand
  25. 25. Examples • McDonald’s • Shumensko
  26. 26. Sacred and profane consumption • Sacred consumption: involves objects and events that are set apart from normal activities and are treated with respect. • Profane consumption : describes objects and events that are ordinary and everyday. They are not special like the sacred objects. Eg : wedding dress VS dress for work Source :
  27. 27. Domains of sacred consumption • Sacred places: • Religious/mystical and country heritage • Theme parks • Home • Sacred people • Celebrities • Royalty • Sacred events • Public events • Sports • Tourism • Souvenirs • Local products, postcards, representations of the site
  28. 28. Desacralization • Desacralization: when a sacred item/symbol is removed from its special place or is duplicated in mass quantities. • Souvenir reproductions • Religion has somewhat become desacralized • Fashion jewelry • Christmas as secular, materialistic occasions
  29. 29. Limits to the use of rituals • Rituals have life cycle, they decline and gain in popularity : need for companies to adapt to new trends • Difficulty for new entrants • Important to take into account the notion of culture • Nutella • Pastis Ricard
  30. 30. Conclusion • Myths and rituals : good opportunity for marketers • The understanding of the cultural dimension of myths and rituals is crucial • Creating a bond with brands using myths and rituals results in brand loyalty
  31. 31. Questions ?
  32. 32. • Joseph Campbell, the four functions of myth • Branding strategy : How to create a word of mouth ? create-word-of-mouth-25/ • Why Agencies and Brands Need to Embrace True Storytelling agencies-and-brands-need-embrace-true-storytelling-152534 • Coca-Cola secret recipe revealed ? secret-recipe-revealed/ Sources
  33. 33. Sources • The Ritual Dimension of Consumer Behavior, D W Rook : 0Ritual%20Dimensions%20.pdf • Cultural influences on consumer behavior : • An integrative framework for cross-cultural behavior : +Innovation+-+An+integrative+framework+for+cross- cultural+consumer+behavior.pdf