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DNA
NOTES
What is DNA?
DNA is an
information
storage
molecule.
DNA works like computer code.
Bill Gates said “DNA is like a computer program but far, far
more advanced than any software...
How do today’s computers compare to DNA?
In other words, how high tech is DNA?
What do you think?
a.DNA is not nearly as a...
1 Terabyte is 1,000 gigabytes
What can you do with a terabyte?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CE9OuNK-QWg
First, let’s ta...
DNA vs “The Cloud”
Which can hold more data?
The cloud is a network of data centers across the
world.
What is a data cente...
A typical large data center can hold about 1 exabyte of data.
Most houses are around 1,700 square feet.
Most large data ce...
https://itknowledgeexchange.techtarget.com/storage-disaster-recovery/whats-the-storage-capacity-of-an-nsa-data-center/
Ins...
(Dimensions are based on a 352,000 square feet data center.)
One data center can store about 1 exabyte (1 million terabyte...
2730
Data Centers
Have you changed your answer?
a.DNA is not nearly as advanced as today’s best computers.
b.DNA is almost as advanced as to...
DNA structure
•DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid
•DNA is made up of molecules called nucleotides.
•Each nucleotide cont...
• Another type of nucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, or RNA,
translates genetic information from DNA into proteins.
• Nucleot...
Structure of DNA
• DNA = Deoxyribonucleic acid
• Made out of sugars (deoxyribose), phosphates
and nitrogen bases
Double He...
Nucleotides
• What is a
nucleotide?
• Three parts:
• 1)Phosphate,
• 2)sugar,
• 3)nitrogen
base.
H
A,T,G and C - The letters of life
Adenine Thymine
Guanine
Cytosine
If you were to start reciting
the order of the ATCGs in
your DNA tomorrow morning,
at a rate of 100 each minute,
57 years ...
Base Pairing
A pairs with T &
C pairs with G
Triplet
The code within DNA is based on a triplet system…
Each “word” in the DNA language is 3 letters long.
CCC CCA CCT C...
Lysine has 2 codons
that code for how to
build it
Lysine has 2 codons
that code for how to
build it
Arginine has 4
codons ...
The ribosomes read the RNA then they put amino acids
together in a chain to make a protein molecule
The Story of Watson, Crick, and Rosalind Franklin
Rosalind Franklin vs. Watson and Crick – Science History Rap Battle
http...
DNA History and DNA Replication
• Show Crash Course Biology – stop at 12:58
– https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8kK2zwjRV0M&...
• DNA Replication
• DNA must replicate (copy) itself so that each new cell after
mitosis has the same DNA as the parent ce...
• The two single strands of DNA then each serve as a template
for a new strand to be created. Because of the base pairing
...
DNA Replication
• DNA Replication Video “Molecular Visualization
of DNA” (Drew Berry, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute ...
What is a gene?
A human chromosome has thousands of genes
Each gene is a recipe for a protein!
A gene is a section of DNA ...
Chromosomes
Chromosomes are
bundles of DNA.
Humans have 23
pairs of homologous
chromosomes.
23 chromatids came
from mom, t...
Genome
Genome = All the
DNA in the
nucleus.
If the genome was written out
in book form, it would be the
equivalent of 4,000 books. It
would take a person typing
60 wo...
-If all the DNA in one of your cells were uncoiled,
connected, and stretched out, it would be about 6 feet
long. It would ...
Teachers! Below are most of the notes in outline form:Teachers! Below are most of the notes in outline form:
What is DNA?
...
So what’s the answer? How advanced is DNA?
First, let’s take a look at our best computers and
electronic data storage.
In ...
DNA Structure
•DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid
•DNA is made up of molecules called _______________.
•Each nucleotide ...
•The bases on one side pair with the bases on another
_______________:
•Adenine pairs with _______________ (A matches T)
•...
DNA Replication
•DNA must replicate (copy) itself so that each new cell after mitosis has the
____________ DNA as the pare...
DNA Notes for High School or Middle School
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DNA Notes for High School or Middle School

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DNA is a fantastic molecule. Its storage capacity outpaces today's best technology by lightyears. Show your students how it compares to computers today, teach your students its structure and how it replicates, and enjoy some fun facts along the way. Also, pause to ask yourself "How did DNA become like this?" Another great question to ask is "How do you get DNA without first having DNA?" Chicken or the egg problem par excellence!

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DNA Notes for High School or Middle School

  1. 1. DNA NOTES
  2. 2. What is DNA? DNA is an information storage molecule.
  3. 3. DNA works like computer code. Bill Gates said “DNA is like a computer program but far, far more advanced than any software ever created.” DNA stores information and controls the cell’s operations like an operating system in a computer.
  4. 4. How do today’s computers compare to DNA? In other words, how high tech is DNA? What do you think? a.DNA is not nearly as advanced as today’s best computers. b.DNA is almost as advanced as today’s best computers. c.DNA is just about advanced as today’s best computers. d.DNA is more advanced than today’s best computers. e.DNA is way more advanced than today’s best computers. OR..
  5. 5. 1 Terabyte is 1,000 gigabytes What can you do with a terabyte? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CE9OuNK-QWg First, let’s take a look at our best computers and electronic data storage. In 2019 a 1 terabyte flash drive would fit in your hand.
  6. 6. DNA vs “The Cloud” Which can hold more data? The cloud is a network of data centers across the world. What is a data center?
  7. 7. A typical large data center can hold about 1 exabyte of data. Most houses are around 1,700 square feet. Most large data centers are around 352,000 square feet.
  8. 8. https://itknowledgeexchange.techtarget.com/storage-disaster-recovery/whats-the-storage-capacity-of-an-nsa-data-center/ Inside the data center are racks and racks of powerful computers called servers. They need a lot of power. They get hot, and need to constantly be cooled, which takes more power.
  9. 9. (Dimensions are based on a 352,000 square feet data center.) One data center can store about 1 exabyte (1 million terabytes). In 2018, all of the world’s data is about 2.7 zetabytes (2.7 billion terabytes) In 2018, one large flash drive could hold 1 terabyte (1 thousand gigabytes) If you put all of the world’s data into DNA form, it would fit into a teaspoon (6 grams).
  10. 10. 2730 Data Centers
  11. 11. Have you changed your answer? a.DNA is not nearly as advanced as today’s best computers. b.DNA is almost as advanced as today’s best computers. c.DNA is just about advanced as today’s best computers. d.DNA is more advanced than today’s best computers. e.DNA is way more advanced than today’s best computers.
  12. 12. DNA structure •DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid •DNA is made up of molecules called nucleotides. •Each nucleotide contains a phosphate group, a sugar group and a nitrogen base. •The four types of nitrogen bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C). •The order of these bases is what determines DNA's instructions, or genetic code. •Similar to the way the order of letters in the alphabet can be used to form a word, the order of nitrogen bases in a DNA sequence forms genes, which tell cells how to make proteins.
  13. 13. • Another type of nucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, or RNA, translates genetic information from DNA into proteins. • Nucleotides are attached together to form two long strands that spiral to create a structure called a double helix. • The bases on one side pair with the bases on another side: • Adenine pairs with Thymine (A matches T) • Guanine pairs with Cytosine (G matches C) • DNA molecules are long — so long, in fact, that they can't fit into cells without the right packaging. To fit inside cells, DNA is coiled tightly to form structures we call chromosomes. • Humans have 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes, which are found inside the cell's nucleus (one homologous chromosome is two chromatids put together). • 23 chromatids came from mom, the other 23 came from dad. Adapted from: https://www.livescience.com/37247-dna.html
  14. 14. Structure of DNA • DNA = Deoxyribonucleic acid • Made out of sugars (deoxyribose), phosphates and nitrogen bases Double Helix polymer This is a nucleotide
  15. 15. Nucleotides • What is a nucleotide? • Three parts: • 1)Phosphate, • 2)sugar, • 3)nitrogen base. H
  16. 16. A,T,G and C - The letters of life Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  17. 17. If you were to start reciting the order of the ATCGs in your DNA tomorrow morning, at a rate of 100 each minute, 57 years would pass before you reached the end…
  18. 18. Base Pairing A pairs with T & C pairs with G
  19. 19. Triplet The code within DNA is based on a triplet system… Each “word” in the DNA language is 3 letters long. CCC CCA CCT CCG CAC CAA CAT CAG DNA codes in three letter words……
  20. 20. Lysine has 2 codons that code for how to build it Lysine has 2 codons that code for how to build it Arginine has 4 codons that code for how to build it Arginine has 4 codons that code for how to build it All of the blue words are amino acids – hundreds of amino acids put together in a certain order make proteins. Proteins are the building blocks for most of the structures in the cell. All of the blue words are amino acids – hundreds of amino acids put together in a certain order make proteins. Proteins are the building blocks for most of the structures in the cell. This chart has all the different possible combos of triplets (also called codons) This chart has all the different possible combos of triplets (also called codons)
  21. 21. The ribosomes read the RNA then they put amino acids together in a chain to make a protein molecule
  22. 22. The Story of Watson, Crick, and Rosalind Franklin Rosalind Franklin vs. Watson and Crick – Science History Rap Battle https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=35FwmiPE9tI
  23. 23. DNA History and DNA Replication • Show Crash Course Biology – stop at 12:58 – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8kK2zwjRV0M&t=5
  24. 24. • DNA Replication • DNA must replicate (copy) itself so that each new cell after mitosis has the same DNA as the parent cell. • The two new daughter cells that split from the parent cell are genetically identical. • DNA replication happens during the S phase (the Synthesis phase) of the cell cycle, before mitosis. • DNA replication occurs when DNA is copied to form an identical molecule of DNA. • How does DNA replicate (copy itself)? Check it out: • An enzyme called DNA Helicase unwinds the DNA and separates it into two strands. This makes each strand one-sided.
  25. 25. • The two single strands of DNA then each serve as a template for a new strand to be created. Because of the base pairing rules, each uncovered base is given its matching base. • For example if ATGA is on the "template strand," then TACT will be on the new DNA strand. • An enzyme called DNA Polymerase reads the template and builds the new strand of DNA by adding each matching base. • This process results in two DNA molecules - one old strand and one new strand. Adapted from www.ck12.org
  26. 26. DNA Replication • DNA Replication Video “Molecular Visualization of DNA” (Drew Berry, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research) – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OjPcT1uUZiE
  27. 27. What is a gene? A human chromosome has thousands of genes Each gene is a recipe for a protein! A gene is a section of DNA that codes for how to build something.
  28. 28. Chromosomes Chromosomes are bundles of DNA. Humans have 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes. 23 chromatids came from mom, the other 23 came from dad.
  29. 29. Genome Genome = All the DNA in the nucleus.
  30. 30. If the genome was written out in book form, it would be the equivalent of 4,000 books. It would take a person typing 60 words per minute, eight hours a day, around 50 years to type the human genome.
  31. 31. -If all the DNA in one of your cells were uncoiled, connected, and stretched out, it would be about 6 feet long. It would be so thin its details could not be seen, even under an electron microscope. -If all the DNA in your body were placed end-to-end, it would stretch from here to the Moon more than 500,000 times! -In book form, that information would fill the Grand Canyon almost 100 times. -If one set of DNA (one cell’s worth) from every person who ever lived were placed in a pile, the final pile would weigh less than an toothpick.
  32. 32. Teachers! Below are most of the notes in outline form:Teachers! Below are most of the notes in outline form: What is DNA? DNA is an information _______________ molecule. It works like _______________ code. Bill Gates said “DNA is like a computer program but far, far more _______________ than any software ever created.” DNA _______________ information and _______________ the cell’s operations like an operating system in a computer. How do today’s computers compare to DNA? In other words, how high tech is DNA? What do you think? a.DNA is not nearly as advanced as today’s best computers. b.DNA is almost as advanced as today’s best computers. c.DNA is just about advanced as today’s best computers. d.DNA is more advanced than today’s best computers. e.DNA is way more advanced than today’s best computers.
  33. 33. So what’s the answer? How advanced is DNA? First, let’s take a look at our best computers and electronic data storage. In 2018, a one terabyte flash drive could fit in your hand. 1 TB is _______________ gigabytes. What can you do with a terabyte? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CE9OuNK-QWg We also have “The Cloud.” In 2018, all of the _______________ data was about 2.7 zetabytes. That’s 2.7 billion terabytes. If you put all of that data into DNA storage it would fit into a __________________.
  34. 34. DNA Structure •DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid •DNA is made up of molecules called _______________. •Each nucleotide contains a ____________ group, a sugar group and a nitrogen base. •The four types of _____________ _______________ are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C). •The _______________ of these bases is what determines DNA's instructions, or genetic code. •Similar to the way the order of letters in the alphabet can be used to form a word, the order of nitrogen bases in a DNA sequence forms genes, which tell cells how to make _______________. •Another type of nucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, or _________, translates genetic information from DNA into proteins. •Nucleotides are attached together to form two long strands that spiral to create a structure called a double _______________.
  35. 35. •The bases on one side pair with the bases on another _______________: •Adenine pairs with _______________ (A matches T) •Guanine pairs with _______________ (G matches C) •DNA molecules are long — so long, in fact, that they can't fit into cells without the right packaging. To fit inside cells, DNA is coiled tightly to form _______________ we call chromosomes. •Humans have 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes, which are found inside the cell's nucleus. (One homologous chromosome is two chromatids put together). •23 chromatids came from ____________, the other 23 came from ____________. The genome is all of the DNA in the nucleus - your ____________ DNA code.
  36. 36. DNA Replication •DNA must replicate (copy) itself so that each new cell after mitosis has the ____________ DNA as the parent cell. •The two new daughter cells that split from the parent cell are genetically ___________. •DNA replication happens during the S phase (the Synthesis phase) of the cell cycle, ____________ mitosis. •DNA replication occurs when DNA is copied to form an identical molecule of DNA. •How does DNA replicate (copy itself)? Check it out: •An enzyme called DNA ____________ unwinds the DNA and separates it into two strands. This makes each strand one-sided. •The two single strands of DNA then each serve as a ____________ for a new stand to be created. Because of the base pairing rules, each uncovered base is given its ____________ base. •For example if ATGA is on the "template strand," then ____________ will be on the new DNA strand. •An enzyme called DNA Polymerase ____________ the template and builds the new strand of DNA by adding each matching base. •This process results in two DNA molecules - one ____________ strand and one ____________ strand.

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