Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Cell Notes - presentation for middle and high school

67 views

Published on

Designed for my honors 7th grade life science class, this would also be appropriate for high school biology.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Cell Notes - presentation for middle and high school

  1. 1. Cell Facts • Cells are microscopic - too small to be seen without a microscope. • Humans are made of about 90 trillion cells. • If a single cell can live on its own, it is called a unicellular organism. • Humans are multicellular organisms. Bacteria are unicellular.
  2. 2. Organization of Life • Organisms - living creatures. Any life form that survives on its own. • Organ systems - made up of organs - work together to make an organism function. Example: digestive system • Organs - made up of tissues - work together to make organ systems function. • Example: stomach made of muscle tissue and skin tissue
  3. 3. • Tissues - made up of cells - work together to make organs function. Example: skin tissue made up of different kinds of skin cells. • Cells – made up of organelles. Cells work together to make tissues. • Organelles – structures inside cells that do the cell’s work. Organization of Life continued…
  4. 4. The Cell Theory 1. Every living thing is made up of one or more cells. • 2. The cell is the smallest, most basic unit of life in all living things. • 3. All cells come from existing cells.
  5. 5. Prokaryotic Cells • Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus • Another name for prokaryotic cells is Bacteria • They are ONLY unicellular – never multicellular Yes, draw this and label it
  6. 6. • Congratulations! You have reached the end of Cell Notes #1. Don’t forget to do the reflection activity your teacher assigned on the left hand page (clock question, one pager, learning log question, etc..) • The next slide will start Cell Notes #2. Enjoy!
  7. 7. Eukaryotic Cells • Cells that DO have a nucleus • Most eukaryotic cells belong to multicellular organisms • There are some unicellular eukaryotes (amoeba, euglena, paramecium) Click here to watch a video of how to draw this... Yes, draw this!
  8. 8. Eukaryotic Cells continued… • Eukaryotes have membrane-covered organelles. • Their DNA is linear (organized in lines) • Eukaryotes are 100 x bigger than prokaryotes. Example of prokaryote (Clostridium) in size comparison to eukaryote cells (human epithelial cells). The bar is 20 micrometers. Image via Biophilia. No, don’t draw this.
  9. 9. Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic No Nucleus Nucleus No Membrane – covered Organelles Membrane – covered Organelles Circular DNA (in a circle) Linear DNA (in a line) Bacteria 100 x smaller than eukaryotes All other cells 100 x bigger than prokaryotes
  10. 10. No, you don’t need to draw these...
  11. 11. No – don’t draw these...
  12. 12. ANIMAL CELL No, don’t draw this - you already drew an animal cell.
  13. 13. PLANT CELL Yes, draw this!
  14. 14. CELL MEMBRANE • Keeps good stuff in (nutrients, water), and bad stuff out (waste, toxins, viruses, bacteria). • Made from lipids (phospholipid bilayer) no, you don’t have to draw this picture
  15. 15. Cell Membrane Yes – draw this
  16. 16. Cell Wall • Hard Wall made of cellulose. Rigid & Stiff. Provides strength & support to cell. Cell walls are only in plant and bacteria cells. • Holes called plasmodesmata, allow transfer of nutrients, waste, and water. All students: draw this Honors students: draw this one too.
  17. 17. • Congratulations! You have reached the end of Cell Notes #2. Don’t forget to do the reflection activity your teacher assigned on the left hand page (clock question, one pager, learning log question, etc..) • The next slide will start Cell Notes #3. Enjoy!
  18. 18. • Is the control center of the cell. Stores information (DNA) on how to run the cell and build new structures. • Largest organelle in the cell • Inside the nucleus is the nucleolus – it stores ribosome parts No, don’t copy this picture NUCLEUS Nucleus
  19. 19. • Machine that reads RNA strand and assembles amino acids into long chains that fold into protein molecules. • Proteins are the building blocks for all structures built in the cell. • Ribosomes are also called“Protein Factories” No, don’t copy this picture Yes, copy this picture
  20. 20. Ribosomes • Honors – draw and label!
  21. 21. Chaperones • Machines that help newly constructed proteins to fold correctly. • Mad cow disease & Alzheimer's disease are caused by mis-folded protein molecules. Chaperones No, don’t copy this picture
  22. 22. • Stores water, minerals & other fluids. • Only found in plant cells – animal cells have tiny ones. Central Vacuole Don’t draw this – you already drew a central vacuole in cell notes #1
  23. 23. Central Vacuole Honors – draw this
  24. 24. No, don’t copy this picture Yes, draw this picture One mitochondrion • The powerhouses of the cell – contain over 300,000 rotating machines called ATP synthases. • They use oxygen and food (glucose) to make ATP energy • ATP = energy molecules (Adenosine triphosphate)
  25. 25. ATP SYNTHASE No, you don’t have to draw this.
  26. 26. ATP SYNTHASE – hundreds of these machines in each mitochondrion CLICK FOR LINK CLICK FOR A VIDEO – It’s cool – I promise!
  27. 27. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM • Smooth E.R. breaks down toxins, and makes lipids which are used for membranes. Doesn’t have ribosomes. • Rough E.R. DOES have ribosomes, and like an assembly line in a factory, it builds, packages, & transports proteins. No, don’t copy this picture, but copy this one!
  28. 28. Rough E.R. (endoplasmic reticulum)
  29. 29. Model of how proteins are made and shipped out of the cell. Rough E.R. Exocytosis (cell burps out proteins) Nuclear pore Ribosome Secretory vesicle Cell membrane Expelled protein Nucleus Golgi Transport Vesicle with proteins insideProteins Smooth E.R.
  30. 30. • Congratulations! You have reached the end of Cell Notes #3. Don’t forget to do the reflection activity your teacher assigned on the left hand page (clock question, one pager, learning log question, etc..) • The next slide will start Cell Notes #4. Enjoy!
  31. 31. • Make food using the energy from the sun. • Change H2O & CO2 to C6H12O6 (glucose) • Contain the green pigment chlorophyll. ChloroplastsLook! A chloroplast! Inner & Outer Membranes Thylakoids Lamellae Stroma No, you don’t have to draw these...
  32. 32. Chloroplasts • Make food using the energy from the sun. • Change H2O & CO2 to C6H12O6 (glucose) • Contain the green pigment chlorophyll. Yes, you get to draw this. Honors, label it please. Honors- draw and label this one too. 
  33. 33. • Processes & transports materials out of the cell. • Places a new coating of lipid membrane on the materials. • “Packaging center” of the cell Golgi Apparatus Yes, draw thisDon’t draw
  34. 34. Gap Junctions • Channels between neighboring cells • Allow for the transport of ions, nutrients & other substances • Allow cells to communicate with each other. Don’t draw this
  35. 35. • Membrane covered storage containers. • Kinesin walkers pull them as they walk on microtubules. A vesicle can carry any kind of cargo: food, waste, protein molecules... Vesicles Kinesin walker (motor protein)
  36. 36. Cytoskeleton • Network of microtubules –gives shape to cell & transportation for kinesin walkers – they walk on the microtubules and pull vesicles.
  37. 37. • Digests food particles, wastes, cell parts & foreign invaders. Lysosome
  38. 38. PEROXISOME • Special vesicle containing digestive enzymes • Breaks down large molecules of food
  39. 39. All cells Gap junctions Typically smaller than plant cells Cell Membranes Nucleus Ribosomes Mitochondria Golgi Complex Lysosomes Vesicles E.R. (Endoplasmic Reticulum) Cytoskeleton Cell Wall Central Vacuole Chloroplasts Plasmodesmata Typically larger than animal cells Plant cells only Animal cells only
  40. 40. • Congratulations! You have reached the end of Cell Notes #4. Don’t forget to do the reflection activity your teacher assigned on the left hand page (clock question, one pager, learning log question, etc..) • The next slide will show you some upcoming test questions… Enjoy!
  41. 41. • Future test questions.... answer in complete sentences. • What are organelles? • What are three differences between plant cells and animal cells? • What are four differences between eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells?

×